Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM.
et al. Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients. N Engl J Med.1991;324:370-376.
Leape LL, Brennan TA, Laird NM.
et al. The nature of adverse events in hospitalized patients. N Engl J Med.1991;324:377-384.
Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N.
et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. JAMA.1995;274:29-34.
Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, Lloyd JF, Burke JP. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients: excess length of stay,
extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA.1997;277:301-306.
Porter J, Jick H. Drug-related deaths among medical inpatients. JAMA.1977;237:879-881.
Bates DW, Spell N, Cullen DJ.
et al. The costs of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. JAMA.1997;277:307-311.
Bates DW, Leape LL, Petrycki S. Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in hospitalized
adults. J Gen Intern Med.1993;8:289-294.
Classen DC, Pestotnik JSL, Evans RS, Burke JP. Computerized surveillance of adverse drug events in hospital patients. JAMA.1991;266:2847-2851.
Jick H. Drugs remarkably non-toxic. N Engl J Med.1974;291:824-828.
Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. JAMA.1998;279:1200-1205.
Shapiro S, Slone D, Lewis GP.
et al. Fatal drug reactions among medical inpatients. JAMA.1971;216:467-472.
Evans RS, Classen DC, Stevens LE.
et al. Using a hospital information system to assess the effects of adverse
drug events. In: Proceedings of the 17th Annual Symposium on Computer Applications
in Medical Care. Washington, DC; October 31-November 3, 1993:161-165.
Leape LL, Bates DW, Cullen DJ.
et al. Systems analysis of adverse drug events. JAMA.1995;274:35-43.
Lesar TS, Briceland L, Stein DS. Factors related to errors in medication prescribing. JAMA.1997;277:312-317.
Bates DW, Boyle DL, Vander Vliet MB, Schneider J, Leape L. Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. J Gen Intern Med.1995;10:199-205.
Jelliffe RW. Creatinine clearance: bedside estimate. Ann Intern Med.1973;79:604-605.
O'Connell MB, Dwinell AM, Bannick-Mohrland SD. Predictive performance of equations to estimate creatinine clearance
in hospitalized elderly patients. Ann Pharmacother.1992;26:627-635.
Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Golper TA.
et al. Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: American College of Physicians; 1994.
Grasela TH, Walawander CA, Kennedy DL, Jolson HM. Capability of hospital computer systems in performing drug-use evaluations
and adverse drug event monitoring. Am J Hosp Pharm.1993;50:1889-1895.
Whipple JK, Quebbeman EJ, Lewis KS.
et al. Identification of patient-controlled analgesia overdoses in hospitalized
patients: a computerized method of monitoring adverse events. Ann Pharmacother.1994;28:655-658.
Dalton-Bunnow MF, Halvachs FJ. Computer-assisted use of tracer antidote drugs to increase detection
of adverse drug reactions: a retrospective and concurrent trial. Hosp Pharm.1993;28:746-749.
Evans RS, Pestotnik SL, Classen DC.
et al. Preventing adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Ann Pharmacother.1994;28:523-527.
Pestotnik SL, Classen DC, Evans RS.
et al. Prospective surveillance of imipenem/cilastatin use and associated
seizures using a hospital information system. Ann Pharmacother.1993;27:497-501.
Evans RS, Pestotnik SL, Classen DC.
et al. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other anti-infective
agents. N Engl J Med.1998;338:232-238.
Edlavitch SA. Adverse drug event reporting: improving the low US reporting rate. Arch Intern Med.1988;148:1499-1503.
Keith MR, Bellanger-McCleery RA, Fuchs Jr JE. Multidisciplinary program for detecting and evaluating adverse drug
reactions. Am J Hosp Pharm.1989;46:1809-1812.
Garibaldi RA. Computers and the quality of care: a clinician's perspective [editorial]. N Engl J Med.1998;338:259-260.
Willcox SM, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community-dwelling elderly. JAMA.1994;272:292-296.
Larson EB, Kukull WA, Buchner D, Reifler BV. Adverse drug reactions associated with global cognitive impairment
in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med.1987;107:169-173.
Johnston ME, Langton KB, Haynes RB, Mathieu A. Effects of computer-based clinical decision support systems on clinician
performance and patient outcomes. Ann Intern Med.1994;120:135-142.
Schiff GD, Rucker D. Computerized prescribing: building the electronic infrastructure for
better medication usage. JAMA.1998;279:1024-1029.
Schroeder CG, Peirpaoli PG. Direct order entry by physicians in a computerized hospital information
system. Am J Hosp Pharm.1986;43:355-359.
Tierney WM, Miller ME, Overhage JM, McDonald CJ. Physician inpatient order writing on microcomputer workstations: effects
on resource utilization. JAMA.1993;269:379-383.