Canadian Medical Association Working Group on Primary Care. Strengthening the Foundation: The Role of the Physician in Primary
Health Care in Canada . Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Medical Association; 1994:1.
Gervas J, Perez-Fernandez M, Starfield BH. Primary care, financing and gatekeeping in western Europe. Fam Pract.1994;11:307-317.
Franks P, Clancy CM. Gatekeeping revisited: protecting patients from overtreatment. N Engl J Med.1992;327:424-429.
Wright RA. Community-oriented primary care: the cornerstone of health care reform. JAMA.1993;269:2544-2547.
Bindman AB, Grumbach K, Osmond D, Vranizan K, Stewart AL. Primary care and receipt of preventive services. J Gen Intern Med.1996;11:269-276.
Salive ME, Guralnik JM, Brock D. Preventive services for breast and cervical cancer in US office-based
practices. Prev Med.1996;25:561-568.
Williams CL, Bollella M, Wynder E. Preventive cardiology in primary care. Atherosclerosis.1994;108(suppl):S117-S126.
Osborn EH, Bird JA, McPhee SJ, Rodnick JE, Fordham D. Cancer screening by primary care physicians: can we explain the differences? J Fam Pract.1991;32:465-471.
Gann P, Melville SK, Luckmann R. Characteristics of primary care office systems as predictors of mammography
utilization. Ann Intern Med.1993;118:893-898.
Selinger HA, Goldfarb NI, Perkel RL, Lepidus B, Carlson L. Physician compliance with mammography guidelines: a retrospective chart
review. Fam Med.1989;21:56-58.
Mustin HD, Holt VL, Connel FA. Adequacy of well-child care and immunizations in US infants born in
Davidson W, Malloy W, Bédard M. Physician characteristics and prescribing for elderly people in New
Brunswick: relation to patient outcomes. CMAJ.1995;152:1227-1234.
Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Fingold SF.
et al. Inappropriate medication prescribing in skilled-nursing facilities. Ann Intern Med.1992;117:684-689.
Wilcox SM, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community-dwelling elderly. JAMA.1994;272:292-296.
Lesar TS, Bricestand LL, Delcoure K, Parmalee JC, Masta-Garnic V, Pohl H. Medication prescribing errors in a teaching hospital. JAMA.1990;263:2329-2334.
Beers MH, Storrie M, Lee G. Potential adverse drug interactions in the emergency room. Ann Intern Med.1990;112:61-64.
Tamblyn RM, McLeod P, Abrahamowicz M.
et al. Questionable prescribing for elderly patients in Quebec. CMAJ.1994;150:1801-1809.
Lindley CM, Tully MP, Paramsothy V, Tallis RC. Inappropriate medication is a major cause of adverse drug reactions
in elderly patients. Age Ageing.1992;21:294-300.
Johnson JA, Bootman JL. Drug-related morbidity and mortality: a cost-of-illness model. Arch Intern Med.1995;155:1949-1956.
Bates DW, Leape LL, Petrycki S. Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in hospitalized
adults. J Gen Intern Med.1993;8:289-294.
Lawler F, Viviani N. Patient and physician perspectives regarding treatment of diabetes:
compliance with practice guidelines. J Fam Pract.1997;44:369-373.
Wareham NJ, Harrison BD, Jenkins PF, Nicholls J, Stableforth DE. A district confidential enquiry into deaths due to asthma. Thorax.1993;48:1117-1120.
Nicolucci A, Cavalieri D, Scorpiglioni N.
et al. for the SID-AMD Italian Study Group for the Implementation of the St.
Vincent Declaration. A comprehensive assessment of the avoidability of long-term complications
of diabetes: a case-control study. Diabetes Care.1996;19:927-933.
Ashton CM, Kuykendall DH, Johnson ML, Wray NP, Wu L. The association between the qualtiy of inpatient care and early readmission. Ann Intern Med.1995;122:415-421.
Legorreta AP, Christian-Herman J, O'Connor RD, Hassan MM, Evans R, Leung KM. Compliance with national asthma management guidelines and specialty
care: a health maintenance organization experience. Arch Intern Med.1998;158:457-464.
Partridge MR, Latouche D, Trako E, Thurston JG.for the UK National Asthma Task Force. A national census of those attending UK accident and emergency departments
with asthma. J Accid Emerg Med.1997;14:16-20.
Friday GA, Khine H, Lin MS, Caliguiri LA. Profile of children requiring emergency treatment for asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.1997;78:221-224.
Homer CJ, Szilagyi P, Rodewald L.
et al. Does quality of care affect rates of hospitalization for childhood
Cockburn J, Irwig L, Turnbull D, Simpson JM, Mock P, Tattersall M. Encouraging attendance at screening mammography: knowledge, attitudes
and intentions of general practitioners. Med J Aust.1989;151:391-396.
Battista RN, Williams JI, MacFarlane LA. Determinants of preventive practices in fee-for-service primary care. Am J Prev Med.1990;6:6-11.
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Avorn J. Improving drug prescribing in primary care: a critical analysis of
the experimental literature. Milbank Q.1989;67:268-317.
Haynes RB, Davis D, McKibbon A, Tugwell P. A critical appraisal of the efficacy of continuing medical education. JAMA.1984;251:61-64.
Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Haynes B. Changing physician performance: a systematic review to the effect of
continuing medical education strategies. JAMA.1995;274:700-705.
Tamblyn RM, Battista RN. Changing clinical practice: which interventions work? J Continuing Educ Health Professions.1993;13:273-288.
Gabel RA. Quality assurance/peer review for recredentialing/relicensure in New
York State. Int Anesthesiol Clin.1992;30:93-101.
Bashook PG, Parboosingh J. Recertification and the maintenance of competence. BMJ.1998;316:545-548.
Ramsey PG, Carline JD, Inui TS, Larson EB, LoGerfo JP, Wenrich MD. Predictive validity of certification by the American Board of Internal
Medicine. Ann Intern Med.1989;110:719-726.
Reynolds GA, Chitnis JG, Roland MO. General practitioner outpatient referrals: do good doctors refer more
patients to hospital? BMJ.1991;302:1250-1252.
Calman NS, Hyman RB, Licht W. Variability in consultation rates and practitioner level of diagnostic
certainty. J Fam Pract.1992;35:31-38.
Wilkin D, Smith AG. Variation in general practitioners' referral rates to consultants. J R Coll Gen Pract.1987;37:350-353.
Madeley RJ, Evans JR, Miur B. The use of routine referral data in the development of clinical audit
and management in North Lincolnshire. J Public Health Med.1990;12:22-27.
Knottnerus JA, Joosten J, Daams J. Comparing the quality of referrals of general practitioners with high
and average referral rates: an independent panel review. Br J Gen Pract.1990;40:178-181.
Noone A, Goldacre M, Coulter A, Seagroatt V. Do referral rates vary widely between practices and does supply of
services affect demand? a study in Milton Keynes and the Oxford region. J R Coll Gen Pract.1989;39:404-407.
Davidson W, Malloy W, Somers G, Bédard M. Relationships between physician practice characteristics and prescribing
behaviour for the elderly in New Brunswick. Can Med Assoc J.1994;150:917.
Molstad S, Hovelius B, Kroon L, Melander A. Presciption of antibiotics to out-patients in hospital clinics, community
health centres and private practice. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.1990;39:9-12.
McGavock H. Some patterns of prescribing by urban general practitioners. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed).1988;296:900-902.
McGavock H, Wilson-Davis K, Niblock RWF. Unsuspected patterns of drug utilization revealed by interrogation
of a regional general practitioner prescribing database. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety.1992;1:73-80.
Bellamy N, Brooks PM, Emmerson BT, Gilbert JR, Campell J, McCredie M. A survey of current prescribing practices of anti-inflammatory and
urate-lowering drugs in gouty arthritis in New South Wales and Queensland. Med J Aust.1989;151:531-537.
Tamblyn R, Berkson L, Dauphinee WD.
et al. Unnecessary prescribing of NSAIDs and the management of NSAID-related
gastrophy in medical practice. Ann Intern Med.1997;127:429-438.
Ferry ME, Lamy PP, Becker LA. Physicians' knowledge of prescribing for the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc.1985;33:616-625.
Bradley CP. Uncomfortable prescribing decisions: a critical incident study. BMJ.1992;304:294-296.
Hohmann AA. Gender bias in psychotropic drug prescribing in primary care. Med Care.1989;27:478-490.
Gabe J. Towards a sociology of tranquillizer prescribing. Br J Addict.1990;85:41-48.
Holm M. Prescription of benzodiazepines in general practice in the County of
Arhus, Denmark. Dan Med Bull.1988;35:495-499.
Van der Waals FW, Mohrs J, Foets M. Sex differences among recipients of benzodiazepines in Dutch general
Iliffe S. Medication review for older people in general practice. J R Soc Med.1994;87(suppl 23):11-13.
Lexchin J. Why are we still poisoning the elderly so often? Can Fam Physician.1993;39:2298-2300.
Holt WS, Mazzuca SA. Prescribing behaviors of family physicians in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Fam Med.1992;24:524-527.
Committee on Safety of Medicines. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and serious gastrointestinal
adverse reactions, I. BMJ.1986;292:614.
Roth SH. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: gastropathy, deaths, and medical
practice. Ann Intern Med.1988;109:353-354.
Verhulst SJ, Distlehorst LH. Examination of nonresponse bias in a major residency follow-up study. Acad Med.1993;68(suppl):S61-S63.
Leaf DA, Neighbor WE, Schaad D, Scott CS. A comparison of self-report and chart audit in studying resident physician
assessment of cardiac risk factors. J Gen Intern Med.1995;10:194-198.
Montano DE, Phillips WR. Cancer screening by primary care physicians: a comparison of rates
obtained from physician self-report, patient survey, and chart audit. Am J Public Health.1995;85:795-800.
Grand'Maison P, Lescop J, Rainsberry P, Brailovsky CA. Large-scale use of an objective, structured clinical examination for
licensing family physicians. CMAJ.1992;146:1735-1740.
Battista RN, Williams JI, MacFarlane LA. Determinants of primary medical practice in adult cancer prevention. Med Care.1986;24:216-224.
Handfield-Jones R, Hollingworth GR. CFPC's certification examination: an overview. Can Fam Physician.1990;36:2069-2074.
Livingston SA, Zieky M. Passing Scores . Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service; 1989.
Sirotnik KA. Introduction to matrix sampling for the practitioner. In: Popham WJ, ed. Evaluation in Education . Berkeley,
Calif: McCurtchau Publishing Corp; 1974:453-529.
Régie de l'Assurance-Maladie du Québec. Statistiques Annuelles 1992 . Québec City, Québec: Québec Gouvernement; 1994:1.
Tamblyn RM, Abrahamowicz M, Smith MC.
et al. Final Report: Validation of Database Measures of Injury in the
Elderly, Part A: Validation of Information in Physician Claims for the Measurement
of Fractures, Subluxation, and Laceration. Part B: Validation of Information
in the Hospitalization Database for the Measurement of Accident (E) Codes
for Falls and Other Injuries and for Hip Fracture . Ottawa, Ontario: National Health Research and Development Program;
1996. Project Reference No. 6605-4441-503.
Tamblyn RM, Lavoie G, Petrella L, Monette J. The use of prescription claims databases in pharmacoepidemiological
research: the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the prescription claims database
in Québec. J Clin Epidemiol.1995;48:999-1009.
Willkins R. Use of postal codes and addresses in the analysis of health data. Health Rep.1993;5:157-177.
Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Rollingher I, Reuben DB, Brooks J, Beck JC. Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing
home residents. Arch Intern Med.1991;151:1825-1832.
Tamblyn RM. Is the public being protected? prevention of suboptimal medical practice
through training programs and credentialing examinations. Eval Health Professions.1994;17:198-221.
Norcini JJ, Grosso LJ, Shea JA, Webster GD. The relationship between features of residency training and ABIM certifying
examination performance. J Gen Intern Med.1987;2:330-336.
Case SM, Swanson DB, Ripkey DR. Practically Cradle to Grave: A Look at the Relationship Between
Undergraduate GPAs, MCATs, NBME Part I and II Scores, and Orthopaedic Surgery
Board Scores . Presented at: American Educational Research Association; April 1995;
San Francisco, Calif.
Elam CL, Johnson MM. Using Preadmission and medical school performances to predict scores
on the USMLE Step 2 examination. Acad Med.1994;69:852.
Swanson DB, Ripkey DR, Case SM.and the 1994-1995 Validity Study Group for USMLE Step 1/2 Pass/Fail
Standards. USMLE relationship between achievement in basic science coursework
and performance on 1994 USMLE Step 1 test administrations. Acad Med.1996;71(suppl):S28-S30.
Case WG, Ripkey DR, Swanson DB.and the 1994-95 Validity Study Group for USMLE Step 1 and 2 Pass/Fail
Standards. The relationship between clinical science performance in 20 medical
schools and performance on Step 2 of the USMLE Licensing Examination. Acad Med.1996;71(suppl):S31-S33.
Elam CL, Johnson MM. NBME Part 1 versus USMLE Step 1: predicting scores based on preadmission
and medical school performances. Acad Med.1994;69:155.
Dillon EC, Sergott RC, Savino PJ, Bosley TM. Diagnostic management by gatekeepers is not cost effective for neuro-ophthalmology. Ophthalmology.1994;101:1627-1630.
Ferguson RI, Maling TJB. The Nelson general practice prescribing project, part I: a pilot audit
of the regional prescribing profile. N Z Med J.1990;103:558-560.
Lipton HL, Bird JA. Drug utilization review in ambulatory settings: state of the science
and directions for outcomes research. Med Care.1993;31:1069-1082.
Lowy FH, Williams JI. Prescription drug policy: a Canadian perspective. Health Aff (Millwood).Spring 1991:215-216.
Anderson GM, Kerluke KJ, Pulcins IR, Hertzman C, Barer ML. Trends and determinants of prescription drug expenditures in the elderly:
data from the British Columbia Pharmacare Program. Inquiry.1993;30:199-207.
Santell JP. Projecting future drug expenditures. Am J Hosp Pharm.1994;51:177-187.
The National Pharmaceutical Strategy Office. National Pharmaceutical Strategy Discussion Document . Ottawa, Ontario: Drugs Directorate, Health Protection Branch; 1993.
Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis
of prospective studies. JAMA.1998;279:1200-1205.
Lipton HL, Byrns PJ, Soumerai SB, Chrischilles EA. Pharmacists as agents of change for rational drug therapy. Int J Technol Assess Health Care.1995;11:485-508.
Soumerai SB, Avorn J. Economic and policy analysis of university-based drug "detailing.". Med Care.1986;24:313-331.
Fox SA, Murata PJ, Stein JA. The impact of physician compliance on screening mammography for older
women. Arch Intern Med.1991;151:50-56.
Kruse J, Phillips DM. Factors influencing women's decision to undergo mammography. Obstet Gynecol.1987;70:744-748.
Coll PP, O'Connor PJ, Crabtree BF, Besdine RW. Effects of age, education, and physician advice on utilization of screening
mammography. J Am Geriatr Soc.1989;37:957-962.
O'Connor AM, Perrault DJ. Importance of physician's role highlighted in survey of women's breast
screening practices. Can J Public Health.1995;86:42-45.
Yaphe J, Sangster J, Guttman D. Chart audit of mammography in a family practice. Fam Physician.1992;38:2314-2317.
Maheux B, Pineault R, Lambert J, Beland F, Berthiaume B. Factors influencing physicians' preventive practices. Am J Prev Med.1989;5:201-206.