Allocating adequate time and resources is the first step required in
creating an environment that promotes learning; institutions must also reward
faculty and staff who actively teach residents how to teach. It is important
that institutions clearly define the expectations placed on residents and
students in their roles as teachers, students, caregivers, and team members.
Finally, institutions should try to create a paradigm shift, away from rewarding
a resident or student for immediately knowing the correct answer, toward rewarding
the ability to find the correct answer and to learn from mistakes.