0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Resident Forum |

The Resident as Teacher: A Neglected Role FREE

James A. Tacci, MD, MPH
[+] Author Affiliations

Prepared by Ashish Bajaj, Department of Resident Physician Services, American Medical Association.


JAMA. 1998;280(10):934M. doi:10.1001/jama.280.10.934.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Program directors and others concerned with residency training devote considerable time to ensuring that teaching institutions and training programs are meeting the educational needs of their residents. One often discussed topic is how to balance the resident's roles as both a student and a caregiver. Often overlooked, however, is the resident's role as a teacher. All residents teach medical students and other residents during training, and many are preparing for a career in academic medicine where they will be increasing their teaching functions. Unfortunately, residents often assume teaching responsibilities with little formal preparation, and few programs set aside time and other resources to develop residents' teaching skills.

Residents play an important part in the education of students and other residents, and they need to be supported in this activity. Training institutions, residency programs, and residents themselves need to acknowledge the importance of the resident's role as a teacher and take account of the time and energy needed to prepare and to teach well. Institutions and programs must foster a healthy teaching environment and define the scope of the training that residents provide.

In their first year, residents are quickly introduced to the mechanics of fulfilling their patient care responsibilities and given an overview of their training program. Rarely do programs emphasize how important the resident's function as a teacher is to the medical students who rotate on their service and to the junior residents with whom they will work. Further, while program directors and attending physicians review clinical knowledge and management skills, they rarely review and develop teaching skills, at least not systematically.

All residency programs would be well served if they were to develop a systematic, ongoing program that teaches residents how to teach. Residents would then be better prepared to recognize all teaching opportunities and settings, not only formal teaching rounds, but also opportunities during the course of routine activities.

Residents need to become familiar with a broad array of teaching techniques, such as case presentations, structured lectures, and informal team discussions. Many residents would also benefit from a basic understanding of adult learning theory. Most importantly, residency programs must dedicate time for residents to learn how to teach. Institutions and programs cannot assume that residents will squeeze these activities into their already strained schedules.

Allocating adequate time and resources is the first step required in creating an environment that promotes learning; institutions must also reward faculty and staff who actively teach residents how to teach. It is important that institutions clearly define the expectations placed on residents and students in their roles as teachers, students, caregivers, and team members. Finally, institutions should try to create a paradigm shift, away from rewarding a resident or student for immediately knowing the correct answer, toward rewarding the ability to find the correct answer and to learn from mistakes.

Medical educators and others have called for medical school and residency programs to broaden the scope of topics that are addressed in structured, educational formats. While our medical education system is the world's best at developing a mastery of procedural skills and teaching clinical management and decision making, other essential topics need to be addressed. Medical ethics, management, economics, and health policy are some of the topics that have been increasingly incorporated in medical school and residency curricula. A few programs have also incorporated teaching skills. So critical is this to medical education that all programs need to make the commitment to develop residents as effective teachers. By doing this, we can also enhance medical students' and residents' learning experiences.

Figures

Tables

References

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles