Study concept and design: L. Sjöström, Bouchard, Näslund, Wedel, Sjöholm, L. Carlsson.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: L. Sjöström, Peltonen, Jacobson, Ahlin, Andersson-Assarsson, Anveden, B. Carlsson, Karason, Lönroth, Näslund, E. Sjöström, Taube, Wedel, Svensson, Sjöholm, L. Carlsson.
Drafting of the manuscript: L. Sjöström, Peltonen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: L. Sjöström, Peltonen, Jacobson, Ahlin, Andersson-Assarsson, Anveden, Bouchard, B. Carlsson, Karason, Lönroth, Näslund, E. Sjöström, Taube, Wedel, Svensson, Sjöholm, L. Carlsson.
Statistical analysis: Peltonen, Wedel.
Obtained funding: L. Sjöström, Sjöholm, L. Carlsson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: L. Sjöström, Jacobson, Ahlin, Anveden, Karason, Lönroth, E. Sjöström, Taube, Svensson, L. Carlsson.
Study supervision: L. Sjöström, Bouchard, B. Carlsson, Taube, L. Carlsson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr L. Sjöström reports receiving lecture fees from AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson and providing an expert statement on drug effects and weight loss effects on obesity for AstraZeneca. Dr Bouchard reports receiving consulting fees from Weight Watchers. Dr B. Carlsson reports being employed by and owning stock in AstraZeneca. Dr Wedel reports receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Roche, and Novartis. Dr Sjöholm reports owning stock in Pfizer. Dr L. Carlsson reports receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca, lecture fees from Johnson & Johnson, and owning stock in Sahltech. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (K2012- 55X-22082-01, K2013-54X-11285-19, K2013-99X-22279-01), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (to Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research), the Swedish federal government under the LUA/ALF agreement concerning research and education of doctors, Diabetesfonden, and the VINNOVA-VINNMER program. The SOS study has previously been supported by grants to authors from Hoffmann–La Roche, AstraZeneca, Cederroth, sanofi-aventis, and Johnson & Johnson.
Role of the Sponsors: The funders were not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank the staff members at 25 surgical departments and 480 primary health care centers in Sweden. No one received compensation for their contribution besides salary.