Study concept and design: Lipska, Ross, Beran, Yudkin, Shah.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lipska, Beran, Yudkin.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Van Houten, Yudkin, Shah.
Obtained funding: Shah.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Yudkin, Shah.
Study supervision: Yudkin, Shah.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Lipska reported receiving support from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop ambulatory care performance measures; being supported by the Pepper Center career development award (P30 AG21342); receiving grant R03 AG045086 (Grants for Early Medical/Surgical Specialists’ Transition to Aging Research) from the National Institute on Aging; and receiving a scholar award (grant UL1 TR000142) through the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation. Dr Ross reported being a member of a scientific advisory board for FAIR Health Inc; receiving grant funding from Pew Charitable Trusts, Medtronic Inc, and Johnson & Johnson; receiving funding from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop and maintain performance measures used for public reporting; receiving funding from the US Food and Drug Administration to develop methods for postmarket surveillance of medical devices; being supported by grant K08 AG032886 from the National Institute on Aging; receiving funding from the American Federation for Aging Research through the Paul B. Beeson career development award program; and receiving personal fees from Pew Charitable Trusts outside the submitted work. Dr Shah reported receiving other from Optum Labs outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant R21HS17628 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Harlan Krumholz, MD, SM (Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine), and Victor Montori, MD, MSc (Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic), for their valuable comments on an earlier draft. No compensation was received.