Physicians have actively called for prevention of nuclear war since
the 1960s and should assume a new role in the 21st century, according to Drs
Forrow and SidelArticle. In an editorial, Drs Lown, Chazov, and Foege, and Drs Saeed-Ul-Majeed
and R. Jayachandra ReddyArticle, the presidents of the Pakistan and Indian Medical
Associations, respectively, appeal to the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan
to pledge no first use of nuclear weapons, stating, "Now, the essential conclusion
is that total elimination of these genocidal weapons is the sole guarantee
that they will never be used."