Context.— Little research has been conducted into the quality of peer review and,
in particular, the effects of blinding peer reviewers to authors' identities
or masking peer reviewers' identities.
Objective.— To determine whether concealing authors' identities from reviewers (blinding)
and/or revealing the reviewer's identity to a coreviewer (unmasking) affects
the quality of reviews, the time taken to carry out reviews, and the recommendation
Design and Setting.— Randomized trial of 527 consecutive manuscripts submitted to BMJ, which were randomized and each sent to 2 peer reviewers.
Interventions.— Manuscripts were randomized as to whether the reviewers were unmasked,
masked, or uninformed that a study was taking place. Two reviewers for each
manuscript were randomized to receive either a blinded or an unblinded version.
Main Outcome Measures.— Mean total quality score, time taken to carry out the review, and recommendation
Results.— Of the 527 manuscripts entered into the study, 467 (89%) were successfully
randomized and followed up. The mean total quality score was 2.87. There was
little or no difference in review quality between the masked and unmasked
groups (scores of 2.82 and 2.96, respectively) and between the blinded and
unblinded groups (scores of 2.87 and 2.90, respectively). There was no apparent
Hawthorne effect. There was also no significant difference between groups
in the recommendations regarding publication or time taken to review.
Conclusions.— Blinding and unmasking made no editorially significant difference to
review quality, reviewers' recommendations, or time taken to review. Other
considerations should guide decisions as to the form of peer review adopted
by a journal, and improvements in the quality of peer review should be sought
via other means.