Study concept and design: Finkelstein, Hutson, Juurlink.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Finkelstein, Macdonald, Li, Hutson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Finkelstein, Macdonald, Hutson, Juurlink.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Macdonald, Li.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Finkelstein, Hutson, Juurlink.
Study supervision: Finkelstein, Juurlink.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by an emerging team grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Drug Safety and Effectiveness Research Network, and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, a nonprofit research institute sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
Role of the Sponsor: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Drug Safety and Effectiveness Research Network, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: The opinions, results, and conclusions reported in this article are those of the authors and are independent from the funding sources. No endorsement by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences or the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care is intended or should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We thank Brogan Inc for use of their Drug Product and Therapeutic Class Database. We are deeply indebted to Teresa To, PhD, and Muhammad M. Mamdani, PharmD, MA, MPH (both with the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada), for their advice and guidance. Drs To and Mamdani did not receive compensation for their roles.