The eradication of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) from infected
persons is the ultimate goal of HIV therapeutic interventions. Great strides
have been made in developing potent antiretroviral regimens that greatly suppress
HIV-1 replication. Despite these therapeutic advances, major obstacles remain
to eradicating HIV-1. Reservoirs of HIV-1 have been identified that represent
major impediments to eradication. Conceptually, there are 2 types of sanctuaries
for HIV-1, cellular and anatomical. Cellular sanctuaries may include latent
CD4+ T cells containing integrated HIV-1 provirus; macrophages,
which may express HIV-1 for prolonged periods; and follicular dendritic cells,
which may hold infectious HIV-1 on their surfaces for indeterminate lengths
of time. The key anatomical reservoir for HIV-1 appears to be the central
nervous system. An understanding of the nature of HIV within these reservoirs
is critical to devising strategies to hasten viral eradication.
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