ZIDOVUDINE administration during pregnancy and the neonatal period reduces
the rate of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
type 1 by approximately two thirds. Analysis of data from the AIDS Clinical
Trial Group (ACTG) 076 cohort1,2
and subsequent reports3- 6
has revealed perinatal transmission rates in the 5% to 8% range in zidovudine-treated
groups compared with previously reported rates of 20% or greater in untreated
groups.7- 9 In late
1994, the Public Health Service developed recommendations for the use of zidovudine
during the antepartum, intrapartum, and neonatal period,10
establishing the national standard of care for identified HIV-infected pregnant
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