Currently, most residents do not have the protection of the National
Labor Relations Act if they choose to collectively bargain with their training
institutions. Residents can still participate in organizations or forums that
represent their views on employment, education, and patient care issues, but
only if their sponsoring institution allows them to set up such a forum. In
general, they have little influence on wages, hours, and working conditions.
While the primary purpose of residency is to train physicians, the primary
responsibility for training rests on the institution.