Published Online: May 27, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5616.
Study concept and design: Pahor, Guralnik, Blair, Church, Espeland, Fielding, Gill, Groessl, King, Kritchevsky, Manini, Miller, Newman, Rejeski, Sink, Williamson.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Pahor, Guralnik, Ambrosius, Bonds, Church, Espeland, Fielding, Gill, Manini, McDermott, Miller, Newman, Sink, Williamson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Pahor, Espeland, Fielding, Manini, McDermott, Miller, Rejeski.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pahor, Guralnik, Ambrosius, Blair, Bonds, Church, Espeland, Fielding, Gill, Groessl, King, Kritchevsky, Manini, McDermott, Miller, Newman, Sink.
Statistical analysis: Ambrosius, Espeland, Miller.
Obtained funding: Pahor, Guralnik, Church, Fielding, Gill, Groessl, King, Manini, McDermott, Miller, Newman, Rejeski, Williamson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Pahor, Guralnik, Bonds, Fielding, Gill, King, Manini, Miller, Newman, Williamson.
Study supervision: Pahor, Guralnik, Fielding, Gill, King, Kritchevsky, Manini, McDermott, Rejeski, Williamson.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Blair reports receiving grant funding from BodyMedia, the Coca-Cola Company, and Technogym. Dr Fielding reports receiving grant funding from the Dairy Research Institute, Department of Defense, Nestle, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, and Unilever; consulting for Dairy Management, Eli Lilly, Essentient, Merck, Nestle, and Regeneron; and serving on the board for Aging in Motion, Ammonett, Cytokinetics, Myosyntax, Nestle, and Segterra. Dr McDermott reports being a medical editor for Informed Medical Decisions Foundation. Dr Sink reports receiving grant funding from the Alzheimer’s Association and the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation; and being a site principal investigator for a multicenter trial of medical food for patients with Alzheimer disease. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study is funded by cooperative agreement UO1AG22376 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Institute on Aging; supplement 3U01AG022376-05A2S from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and was sponsored in part by the Intramural Research Program. The research is partially supported by the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers at the University of Florida (1 P30 AG028740), Wake Forest University (1 P30 AG21332),Tufts University (1P30AG031679), University of Pittsburgh (P30 AG024827), and Yale University (P30AG021342) and the NIH/NCRR CTSA at Stanford University (UL1 RR025744), at University of Florida (U54RR025208) and at Yale University (UL1 TR000142). Tufts University is also supported by the Boston Rehabilitation Outcomes Center (1R24HD065688-01A1). LIFE investigators are also partially supported by the following: Dr Thomas Gill (Yale University) is the recipient of an Academic Leadership Award (K07AG3587) from the National Institute on Aging. Dr Carlos Fragoso (Spirometry Reading Center, Yale University) is the recipient of a Career Development Award from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Roger Fielding (Tufts University) is partially supported by the US Department of Agriculture, under agreement 58-1950-0-014.
Role of the Sponsors: The NIH sponsor was a voting member (1 of 12 votes) of the LIFE Steering Committee, which approved the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Research Investigators for the LIFE Study: Administrative Coordinating Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL: Marco Pahor, MD—Principal Investigator of the LIFE Study; Jack M. Guralnik, MD, PhD—Coinvestigator of the LIFE Study (University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD); Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, PhD; Connie Caudle; Lauren Crump, MPH; Latonia Holmes; Jocelyn Lee, PhD; Ching-ju Lu, MPH. Data Management, Analysis and Quality Control Center: Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC: Michael E. Miller, PhD—DMAQC Principal Investigator; Mark A. Espeland, PhD—DMAQC Coinvestigator; Walter T. Ambrosius, PhD; William Applegate, MD; Daniel P. Beavers, PhD, MS; Robert P. Byington, PhD, MPH, FAHA; Delilah Cook, CCRP; Curt D. Furberg, MD, PhD; Lea N. Harvin, BS; Leora Henkin, MPH, Med; John Hepler, MA; Fang-Chi Hsu, PhD; Laura Lovato, MS; Wesley Roberson, BSBA; Julia Rushing, BSPH, MStat; Scott Rushing, BS; Cynthia L. Stowe, MPM; Michael P. Walkup, MS; Don Hire, BS; W. Jack Rejeski, PhD; Jeffrey A. Katula, PhD, MA; Peter H. Brubaker, PhD; Shannon L. Mihalko, PhD; Janine M. Jennings, PhD; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Evan C. Hadley, MD (National Institute on Aging); Sergei Romashkan, MD, PhD (National Institute on Aging); Kushang V. Patel, PhD (National Institute on Aging); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD; Denise Bonds, MD, MPH. Field Centers: Northwestern University, Chicago, IL: Mary M. McDermott, MD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Bonnie Spring, PhD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Joshua Hauser, MD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Diana Kerwin, MD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Kathryn Domanchuk, BS; Rex Graff, MS; Alvito Rego, MA. Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA: Timothy S. Church, MD, PhD, MPH—Field Center Principal Investigator; Steven N. Blair, PED (University of South Carolina); Valerie H. Myers, PhD; Ron Monce, PA-C; Nathan E. Britt, NP; Melissa Nauta Harris, BS; Ami Parks McGucken, MPA, BS; Ruben Rodarte, MBA, MS, BS; Heidi K. Millet, MPA, BS; Catrine Tudor-Locke, PhD, FACSM; Ben P. Butitta, BS; Sheletta G. Donatto, MS, RD, LDN, CDE; Shannon H. Cocreham, BS; Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; Abby C. King, PhD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Cynthia M. Castro, PhD; William L. Haskell, PhD; Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD; Leslie A. Pruitt, PhD; Kathy Berra, MSN, NP-C, FAAN; Veronica Yank, MD; Tufts University, Boston, MA; Roger A. Fielding, PhD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Miriam E. Nelson, PhD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Sara C. Folta, PhD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Edward M. Phillips, MD; Christine K. Liu, MD; Erica C. McDavitt, MS; Kieran F. Reid, PhD, MPH; Won S. Kim, BS; Vince E. Beard, BS; University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Todd M. Manini, PhD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Marco Pahor, MD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Stephen D. Anton, PhD; Susan Nayfield, MD; Thomas W. Buford, PhD; Michael Marsiske, PhD; Bhanuprasad D. Sandesara, MD; Jeffrey D. Knaggs, BS; Megan S. Lorow, BS; William C. Marena, MT, CCRC; Irina Korytov, MD; Holly L. Morris, MSN, RN, CCRC (Brooks Rehabilitation Clinical Research Center, Jacksonville, FL); Margo Fitch, PT (Brooks Rehabilitation Clinical Research Center, Jacksonville, FL); Floris F. Singletary, MS, CCC-SLP (Brooks Rehabilitation Clinical Research Center, Jacksonville, FL); Jackie Causer, BSH, RN (Brooks Rehabilitation Clinical Research Center, Jacksonville, FL); Katie A. Radcliff, MA (Brooks Rehabilitation Clinical Research Center, Jacksonville, FL); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Anne B. Newman, MD, MPH—Field Center Principal Investigator; Stephanie A. Studenski, MD, MPH—Field Center Coinvestigator; Bret H. Goodpaster, PhD; Nancy W. Glynn, PhD; Oscar Lopez, MD; Neelesh K. Nadkarni, MD, PhD; Kathy Williams, RN, BSEd, MHSA; Mark A. Newman, PhD; George Grove, MS; Janet T. Bonk, MPH, RN; Jennifer Rush, MPH; Piera Kost, BA (deceased); Diane G. Ives, MPH; Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC; Stephen B. Kritchevsky, PhD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Anthony P. Marsh, PhD—Field Center Coinvestigator; Tina E. Brinkley, PhD; Jamehl S. Demons, MD; Kaycee M. Sink, MD, MAS; Kimberly Kennedy, BA, CCRC; Rachel Shertzer-Skinner, MA, CCRC; Abbie Wrights, MS; Rose Fries, RN, CCRC; Deborah Barr, MA, RHEd, CHES; Yale University, New Haven, CT; Thomas M. Gill, MD—Field Center Principal Investigator; Robert S. Axtell, PhD, FACSM—Field Center Coinvestigator (Southern Connecticut State University, Exercise Science Department); Susan S. Kashaf, MD, MPH (VA Connecticut Healthcare System); Nathalie de Rekeneire, MD, MS; Joanne M. McGloin, MDiv, MS, MBA; Karen C. Wu, RN; Denise M. Shepard, RN, MBA; Barbara Fennelly, MA, RN; Lynne P. Iannone, MS, CCRP; Raeleen Mautner, PhD; Theresa Sweeney Barnett, MS, APRN; Sean N. Halpin, MA; Matthew J. Brennan, MA; Julie A. Bugaj, MS; Maria A. Zenoni, MS; Bridget M. Mignosa, AS. Cognition Coordinating Center, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC; Jeff Williamson, MD, MHS—Center Principal Investigator; Kaycee M Sink, MD, MAS—Center Coinvestigator; Hugh C. Hendrie, MB, ChB, DSc (Indiana University); Stephen R. Rapp, PhD; Joe Verghese, MB, BS (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University); Nancy Woolard; Mark Espeland, PhD; Janine Jennings, PhD; Electrocardiogram Reading Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Carl J. Pepine MD, MACC; Mario Ariet, PhD; Eileen Handberg, PhD, ARNP; Daniel Deluca, BS; James Hill, MD, MS, FACC; Anita Szady, MD. Spirometry Reading Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT; Geoffrey L. Chupp, MD; Gail M. Flynn, RCP, CRFT; Thomas M. Gill, MD; John L. Hankinson, PhD (Hankinson Consulting, Inc.); Carlos A. Vaz Fragoso, MD; Cost Effectiveness Analysis Center; Erik J. Groessl, PhD (University of California, San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System); Robert M. Kaplan, PhD (Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, National Institutes of Health).
Disclaimer: Any opinions, findings, conclusion, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the US Department of Agriculture. Dr McDermott, senior editor at JAMA, did not participate in the evaluation of this article or the decision to publish the study.
Additional Contributions: We thank Evan C. Hadley, MD, and Sergei Romashkan, MD, PhD, from the National Institute on Aging (Bethesda, Maryland), for their substantial intellectual contribution to the development and implementation of the LIFE Study. Dr Hadley and Dr Romashkan are federal employees fully paid by the NIH. They did not receive any additional compensation from the study.