Study concept and design: Neuman, Cirullo, Schwartz.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Neuman, Goldstein, Cirullo.
Drafting of the manuscript: Neuman, Schwartz.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Neuman, Goldstein, Cirullo, Schwartz.
Statistical analysis: Neuman, Schwartz.
Obtained funding: Neuman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Neuman, Cirullo, Schwartz.
Study supervision: Neuman, Goldstein, Schwartz.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Schwartz reported receiving personal fees from Allergan, Bayer, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, General Electric, and UBC and grants from Pfizer outside the submitted work during the 36 months prior to submission of the research manuscript; no funding from any of these sources was obtained for the present study. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Neuman received funding from the National Institute on Aging (K08AG043548-02).
Role of the Sponsors: The National Institute on Aging had no role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: Lee A. Fleisher, MD (University of Pennsylvania), Sankey Williams, MD (University of Pennsylvania), Brian Kavanagh, MB, BSc (University of Toronto), and Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD (American College of Physicians), provided comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Charlene May (ACC) and Gayle R. Whitman, RN, PhD (AHA), provided input regarding study design and selection of guidelines for analysis. None of these individuals were compensated for their contributions. We also thank the editor and reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions.