Published Online: May 18, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5804.
Study concept and design: Liu, Escobar, Soule, Whippy.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.
Drafting of the manuscript: Liu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.
Statistical analysis: Liu, Greene, Iwashyna.
Obtained funding: Liu, Escobar, Iwashyna.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Liu, Escobar, Soule.
Study supervision: Angus.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: The authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Angus reported receiving nonfinancial support from Edwards Inc; personal fees from Pfizer, MedImmune LLC, Eli Lilly, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, and Roche Diagnostics International Ltd; and a grant from Eisai Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by the Permanente Medical Group, the Kaiser Foundation Hospitals and Health Plan, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and US Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research & Development grant IIR 11-109.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript, and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Disclaimer: Dr Angus, associate editor for JAMA, was not involved in the editorial review of or decision to publish this article.