Author Contributions: Dr Christian had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Katz, Cole, LeClerq, Tielsch.
Acquisition of data: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Khatry, Cole, LeClerq.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Katz, Schaefer, Cole, Tielsch.
Drafting of the manuscript: Christian.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Khatry, Katz, Schaefer, Cole, LeClerq, Tielsch.
Statistical analysis: Christian, Katz, Schaefer.
Obtained funding: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Cole.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Christian, Murray-Kolb, Khatry, Schaefer, Cole, LeClerq.
Study supervision: Christian, Khatry, Schaefer, LeClerq.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was carried out by the Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, in collaboration with the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, Kathmandu, Nepal, with funding from National Institutes of Health grant R01 HD050254-01 and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington. The antenatal micronutrient supplementation study was conducted under Micronutrients for Health Cooperative Agreement HRN-A-00-97-00015-00 and Global Research Activity Cooperative Agreement GHS-A-00-03-00019-00 between Johns Hopkins University and the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases, and Nutrition, US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Sight and Life Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, provided additional support for the study. The preschool child iron and zinc supplementation study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (HD 38753), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and a cooperative agreement between Johns Hopkins University and the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases, and Nutrition, US Agency for International Development (HRN-A-00-97-00015-00).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Apart from the authors, all members of the Nepal study team helped in the successful implementation of the study, including field manager, coordinator, supervisors, psychology research assistants (Keshav Mishra, Nar Bahadur Thapa, Mona Lisa Pradhan, Sumitra Dhakal, and Bikram Sherchan), and team leader interviewers. Those named here received compensation as salaried staff.