Author Contributions: Dr Dahia had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Yao, Cascon, Opocher, and Robledo contributed equally to this work.
Study concept and design: Opocher, Robledo, Dahia.
Acquisition of data: Yao, Schiavi, Cascon, Qin, Inglada-Pérez, King, R. A. Toledo, Ercolino, Rapizzi, Ricketts, Mori, Giacchè, Mendola, Taschin, Boaretto, Loli, Iacobone, Rossi, Biondi, Lima-Junior, Kater, Bex, Grossman, Gruber, Barontini, Persu, Castellano, S. P. A. Toledo, Maher, Mannelli, Opocher, Robledo, Dahia.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Yao, Schiavi, Cascon, Qin, Inglada-Pérez, King, R. A. Toledo, Mori, Taschin, Loli, Vikkula, Grossman, Gruber, Persu, Castellano, S. P. A. Toledo, Maher, Opocher, Dahia.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cascon, Inglada-Pérez, Robledo, Dahia.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Yao, Schiavi, Cascon, Qin, Inglada-Pérez, King, R. A. Toledo, Ercolino, Rapizzi, Ricketts, Mori, Giacchè, Mendola, Taschin, Boaretto, Loli, Iacobone, Rossi, Biondi, Lima-Junior, Kater, Bex, Vikkula, Grossman, Gruber, Barontini, Persu, Castellano, S. P. A. Toledo, Maher, Mannelli, Opocher, Robledo, Dahia.
Statistical analysis: Inglada-Pérez, Dahia.
Obtained funding: Vikkula, Castellano, S. P. A. Toledo, Maher, Robledo, Dahia.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Yao, Schiavi, King, Ercolino, Rapizzi, Ricketts, Mori, Giacchè, Mendola, Taschin, Boaretto, Loli, Iacobone, Grossman, Gruber, Persu, Castellano, Opocher, Dahia.
Study supervision: Schiavi, Vikkula, Persu, Maher, Mannelli, Opocher, Robledo, Dahia.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The Cancer Therapy and Research Center Pathology Core and the Optical Imaging Core are supported by University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant P30 CA54174 (Cancer Therapy and Research Center at UTHSCSA). The Optical Imaging Core is also supported by National Institute on Aging (NIA) grant P30 AG013319 (Nathan Shock Center) and NIA grant P01AG19316. The Nucleic Acids Core Facility receives the support of the Department of Microbiology, UTHSCSA. Funds from the Fundação Faculdade de Medicina and the Division of Endocrinology provided support for the screening of the Brazilian cohort. Dr R. A. Toledo is supported by a São Paulo State Research Foundation (FAPESP grant 2009/15386-6) postdoctoral fellowship. Drs Ricketts and Maher are supported by Cancer Research UK. Dr Vikkula is supported by the Interuniversity Attraction Poles initiated by the Belgian Federal Science Policy, network 6/05; Concerted Research Actions Convention No. 07/12-005 of the Belgian French Community Ministry; la Communauté Française de Wallonie-Bruxelles et la Lotterie Nationale. Drs Vikkula and Persu are supported by the FRS-FNRS (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique), Belgium. Dr Gruber is supported by NCI grant 5 P30 CA465920. Dr Castellano is supported by funds from the Italian University and Research Ministry (grant 2006060473) and by the Fondazione della Comunità Bresciana. Dr S. P. A. Toledo is supported by a Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico grant. Dr Robledo is supported by Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias grant PI 08/080883 and Fundación Mutua Madrileña (reference AP2775/2008). Dr Dahia is supported by the Voelcker Fund, Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation, Concern Foundation, and Clinical Translational and Science Awards (National Institutes of Health).
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the members of the Familial Pheochromocytoma Consortium for their support and earlier contributions. We are grateful to the following colleagues who contributed to the recruitment of patients and/or clinical information: Jan Bruder, MD, Sunil Sudarshan, MD, I-Tien Yeh, MD (UTSHCSA), Neil Aronin, MD (University of Massachusetts), Jessica Everett, MS, CGC, and Shu Chen Huang, PhD (University of Michigan), Gabriela Sanso, PhD (Centro de Investigaziones Endocrinologicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Berenice B. Mendonça, MD, Maria Adelaide Albergaria Pereira, MD, Maria Cândida Barisson Villares Fragoso, MD, PhD, and Antonio Marcondes Lerário, MD, PhD (Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo), Carmen Fajardo Montañana, MD (Hospital Universitario de La Ribera, Alzira, Spain), Antonio Picó, MD (Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain), Marta Korbonits, MD, PhD (St Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts and the London School of Medicine), Annamaria Colao, MD (University of Naples Federico II), Gianpaolo Bernini, MD (University of Pisa), Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, MD, and Chiara Zatelli, MD (University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy), Emanuela Lucci Cordisco, MD (University of Rome), Gennaro Favia, MD, and Antonio Toniato, MD (University of Padova), Serena Demattè, MD (Ospedale S. Chiara, Trento, Italy), Massimo Terzolo, MD (University of Turin), Giorgio Bertola, MD (Ospedale Garbagnate Milanese, Milan, Italy), Maria Vittoria Davì, MD (Policlinico GB Rossi, Verona, Italy), Giuseppe Picca, MD (Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Foggia, Italy), Adele Nardecchia, MD (Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Bari, Italy), Gilberta Giacchetti, MD, and Giorgio Arnaldi, MD (University Politenica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy), Julian Donckier, MD, Pierre Garin, MD, Marc Hamoir, MD, Dominique Maiter, MD, and Michel Mourad, MD (Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium), Florence Bosly, MD (Clinique Saint-Joseph, Arlon, Belgium), Annick Claessens, MD (Clinique Saint-Joseph, Arlon, Belgium), Brigitte Decallonne, MD (University Hospital Leuven), Pierre Kleynen, MD (CHU-Brugmann, Brussels, Belgium), Michel Ponchon, MD (Clinique Saint-Etienne, Brussels, Belgium), An Van Audenhove, MD (Clinique Sainte-Elisabeth, Brussels, Belgium), and Inge Van Pottelbergh, MD (O. L. Vrouwziekenhuis, Aalst, Belgium).