Author Contributions: Dr Korver had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Korver, Dekker, Wever, Frijns, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Acquisition of data: Korver, Konings.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Korver, Dekker, Beers, Wever, Frijns, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Drafting of the manuscript: Korver, Dekker, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Korver, Konings, Dekker, Beers, Wever, Frijns, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Statistical analysis: Korver, Dekker.
Obtained funding: Frijns, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Konings, Wever.
Study supervision: Dekker, Wever, Frijns, Oudesluys-Murphy.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study received funding from the Willem-Alexander Children's Fund, the Wieger Wakinoerfund, and the Heinsius Houbolt Fund.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
The DECIBEL Collaborative Study Group: Jutte de Vries, MD, and Ann Vossen, MD, PhD (Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center [LUMC]); Sarina Kant, MD, PhD (Department of Clinical Genetics, LUMC); Elske van den Akker-van Marle, PhD (Department of Health Care Economics, LUMC); Saskia Le Cessie, PhD (Department of Clinical Epidemiology, LUMC); Carolien Rieffe, PhD (Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Leiden); Martina Ens-Dokkum, MD, PhD (Royal Dutch Kentalis); Irma van Straaten, MD, PhD (Isala Clinics Zwolle); Noelle Uilenburg, MSc (Dutch Foundation for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Child); Bert Elvers; Gerard Loeber, PhD; and Anneke Meuwese-Jongejeugd, MD, PhD (National Institute for Public Health and Environment). Participating Audiology Centers: Marcel Maré, MSc (Academic Medical Centre); Bert van Zanten, PhD (Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht); André Goedegebure, PhD (Sophia Children's Hospital, Erasmus Medical Center); Francien Coster, PhD, and Pim van Dijk, PhD (University Medical Center Groningen); Theo Goverts, PhD (VU University Medical Center); Ronald Admiraal, MD, PhD; Cor Cremers, MD, PhD; and Dirk Kunst, MD, PhD (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre); Marina de Leeuw (Royal Auris Group); Janette Dijkhuizen, PhD; Marleen Scharloo, MSc; and Dirk Hoeben (Royal Dutch Kentalis); Gerti Rijpma, MSc; Wim Graef, MSc; Dik Linschoten, MSc; Jessica Kuijper, MSc; Nanda Hof, MSc; and Reinoud Koldewijn, MSc (Pento Audiology Centers); Donné Pans, MSc (Hoensbroeck Audiology Center); Frank Jorritsma, MSc, and Maarten van Beurden, MSc (Audiology Center Tilburg and Breda); Christien ter Huurne, MSc (Audiology Center Eindhoven); Patrick Brienesse, PhD (Audiology Center Holland Noord). Lisanne Seekles, Jantine de Jong, Andrea Thijssen, Andrea Lievense, Marina van Egdom–van der Wind, Stephanie Theunissen, Sophie Mooij, and Charlotte Schouten (medical students, LUMC).
Additional Contributions: We thank all children and their parents for participating in the DECIBEL study. The quality-of-life measure used in this study was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory developed by James W. Varni, PhD.