Author Contributions: Ms Neily and Dr Young-Xu had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Bagian, Young-Xu, Neily, Paull, Mills, Mazzia.
Acquisition of data: Carney, Neily, Paull, Mills, Mazzia.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Carney, West, Young-Xu, Neily, Mills, Berger.
Drafting of the manuscript: Carney, Young-Xu, Neily, Mills.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Carney, Bagian, West, Young-Xu, Neily, Paull, Mills, Mazzia, Berger.
Statistical analysis: Young-Xu, Mills.
Obtained funding: Bagian.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Carney, Bagian, West, Neily, Paull, Mills, Mazzia.
Study supervision: Bagian, Neily, Paull, Mazzia, Berger.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety, Ann Arbor, Michigan, the Field Office in White River Junction, Vermont, and the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas.
Role of the Sponsor: The design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript was conducted as part of the work of VHA employees and there was no other sponsor or funding agency.
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government.
Additional Contributions: We thank the VA Surgical Quality Data Use Group for its role as scientific advisors and for the critical review of data use and analysis presented in this manuscript, Shoshana Boar, MS, for her work in supporting the VHA Medical Team Training program, and Lori Robinson, RN, MS, for her role as one of the instructors for the VHA Medical Team Training program. Mss Boar and Robinson both work for the Department of Veterans Affairs and received no other compensation related to this study.