Author Contributions: Dr Powell had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Mendes de Leon, Flynn, Grady, Rucker-Whitaker.
Acquisition of data: Powell, Richardson, Flynn, Rucker-Whitaker, Eaton, Avery.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Janssen, Mendes de Leon, Avery.
Drafting of the manuscript: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Rucker-Whitaker, Eaton, Avery.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Janssen, Mendes de Leon, Flynn, Grady, Avery.
Statistical analysis: Powell, Richardson, Janssen, Avery.
Obtained funding: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Mendes de Leon, Flynn, Grady.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Powell, Richardson, Flynn, Grady, Rucker-Whitaker, Eaton, Avery.
Study supervision: Powell, Calvin, Richardson, Mendes de Leon, Flynn, Eaton.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Calvin reported receiving research funding from Novartis, initiated after the conclusion of this trial. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: Support for The HART study was provided by National Institutes of Health grant HL065547.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
The Hart Investigators:Executive Committee: Lynda H. Powell, PhD, James E. Calvin Jr, MD, Dejuran Richardson, PhD, Imke Janssen, PhD, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, PhD, Kristin J. Flynn, PhD, Kathleen L. Grady, PhD, Cheryl S. Rucker-Whitaker, MD, Claudia Eaton, MS, Elizabeth Avery, MS. Sponsor Contacts at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Jared Jobe, PhD; Peter Kaufmann, PhD. Recruiting Hospital Principal Investigators and Collaborators: Cheryl Brody, DO (South Suburban Hospital); Leslie Brookfield, MD (Advocate Lutheran General Hospital); Stephanie Dunlap, MD (University of Illinois); Philip Krause, MD (Rush North Shore Medical Center); Stuart Rosenbush, MD (principal investigator [PI]), William Elliott, MD, PhD, Donald Tanis, MD (Rush University Medical Center); Mitchell Saltzberg, MD (PI), Maria Rosa Costanzo, MD (Midwest Heart Specialists); Michael Shapiro (PI), Thomas Stamos, MD (John H. Stroger Hospital of Cook County); Marc A. Silver, MD (Advocate Christ Medical Center); Michael Waligora, MD (PI), Randall Williams, MD (Evanston Northwestern Healthcare and Glenbrook Hospital). Self-Management Group Leaders: Kristin J. Flynn (supervisor); Andrea Kozak (assistant supervisor); Carl Thoresen, Virginia Price, Susan Gilkey (trainers); Maureen Gecht, Jim Jarzenbowski, Kevin McClone, Carmen Lynas, Sybil Madison-Boyd, Marilynn Rochon, Bruce Rybarczyk, Sarah Sellergren, Stephen Tate, Tamara Gathright, Rocio Munoz, Cheryl S. Rucker-Whitaker, Lynda H. Powell, Kim Lebowitz, Patty Roberts, Ayesha Shaikh, Marilyn Vander Werf. Education Control Group Leader: Kathleen L. Grady (supervisor). End Points Adjudiction Committee: James E. Calvin Jr (chair); Stamatis Dimitropoulos, MD; William Elliott, MD, PhD; Philip Kraus, MD; Payman Sattar, MD; Sujata Shanbhag, MD; Thomas Stamos, MD; Patricia Vassallo, MD. Data and Safety Monitoring Board: Lawrence S. Cohen, MD (chair); Baruch A. Brody, PhD (starting 2002); Byron W. Brown, PhD (through 2004); Nancy R. Cook, ScD (starting 2005); Julie Buring, ScD; Robert M. Kaplan, PhD; Lynn Warner Stevenson, MD; David Thomasma, PhD (through 2002).
Additional Contributions: We thank John Cursio, MS (Rush University Medical Center), for help with statistical analyses, Glenda Kravitz, MS, for help with data management, and Diane Downs, MSN, RN (Rush University Medical Center), for operational leadership. Mss Kravitz and Downs received support from this project. We gratefully acknowledge the HART patients for their time and effort.