Study concept and design: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Saydah, Imperatore, Badaru, Liese, Merchant, Lawrence, Dolan, Hamman.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Saydah, Linder, Divers, Bell, Talton, Crume, Liese, Merchant, Reynolds, Dolan, Liu, Hamman.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Badaru, Lawrence, Dolan, Liu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mayer-Davis, Saydah, Imperatore, Linder, Divers, Bell, Talton, Crume, Liese, Merchant, Lawrence, Reynolds, Dolan, Hamman.
Statistical analysis: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Divers, Talton, Liese, Lawrence.
Obtained funding: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Bell, Liese, Dolan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mayer-Davis, Saydah, Linder, Bell, Dolan, Liu, Hamman.
Study supervision: Dabelea, Mayer-Davis, Saydah, Imperatore, Divers, Merchant.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Liese reported that she has received grant support from the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, US Department of Agriculture, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, and the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity; personal fees from the National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Agriculture; and Dr Reynolds reported receiving grant support from Merck. No other financial disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth is funded by grants PA00097, DP-05-069, and DP-10-001 from the CDC and by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Additional funding was provided to the CDC for these cooperative agreements by the NIDDK. The site contracts grants are U48/CCU919219, U01 DP000246, and U18DP002714 to Kaiser Permanente Southern California; U48/CCU819241-3, U01 DP000247, and U18DP000247-06A1 to the University of Colorado Denver; U48/CCU519239, U01 DP000248, and 1U18DP002709 to the Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; U48/CCU419249, U01 DP000254, and U18DP002708-01 to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; U58/CCU019235-4, U01 DP000244, and U18DP002710-01 to the University of Washington School of Medicine; U48/CCU919219, U01 DP000250, and 200-2010-35171 to the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. This project was also support by grants UL1RR029882 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Research Resources to the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research [SCTR] Institute, at the Medical University of South Carolina; UL1 TR00423 from the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award to the Seattle Children’s Hospital of the University of Washington; UL1 TR000154 from the Clinical and Translational Research Center to the University of Colorado Pediatric Clinical; P30 DK57516 from the Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center, NIH, to the Barbara Davis Center at the University of Colorado at Denver; 8 UL1 TR000077 from the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH; and the Children with Medical Handicaps program managed by the Ohio Department of Health.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors were voting members of the steering committee, had full access to the data, but had no role in the data analysis. Authors who were employed by the sponsor (Drs Saydah and Imperatore, CDC, and Linder, NIDDK) reviewed and approved the manuscript, and participated in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group: California: Jean M. Lawrence, ScD, MPH, MSSA, Kristi Reynolds, PhD, MPH, Mary Helen Black, PhD, Harpreet S. Takhar, MPH, Kim Holmquist, BA, and Jin-Wen Hsu, PhD, for the Department of Research & Evaluation; and David J. Pettitt, MD, for the Sansum Diabetes Research Institute. Colorado: Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD, Richard F. Hamman, MD, DrPH, and Lisa Testaverde, MS, for the Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Denver; Georgeanna J. Klingensmith, MD, Marian J. Rewers, MD, PhD, David Maahs, MD, and Paul Wadwa, MD, for the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes; Stephen Daniels, MD, PhD, and Kristen Nadeau, MD, for the Department of Pediatrics and Children’s Hospital; Clifford A. Bloch, MD, for the Pediatric Endocrine Associates; Carmelita Sorrelman, MSPH, Jeffrey Powell, MD, MPH, and Susie John, MD, MPH, for the Navajo Area Indian Health Promotion Program; Kathy Love-Osborne, MD, for the Denver Health and Hospital Authority; and Carol Greenlee, MD, for Western Slope Endocrinology. Ohio: Lawrence M. Dolan, MD, Michael Seid, PhD, Elaine Urbina, MD, MS, Amy Shah, MD, and Debra A. Standiford, MSN, CNP, for the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. North Carolina: Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PhD, and Joan Thomas MS, RD, for the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; and Pam Clark, MD, for McLeod Pediatric Subspecialists; and Mark Parker, MD, for Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes Specialists, Charlotte. South Carolina: Anwar Merchant, ScD, Angela D. Liese, PhD, MPH, Robert R. Moran, PhD, Gladys Gaillard-McBride, RN, CFNP, Malaka Jackson, MD, and Lisa Knight, MD, for the University of South Carolina; and Deborah Bowlby, MD, for the Medical University of South Carolina, and James Amrhein, MD, and Bryce Nelson, MD, for Greenville Health System, Greenville. Washington: Catherine Pihoker, MD, Maryam Afkarian, MD, Angela Badaru, MD, Lisa Gilliam, MD, PhD, Irl Hirsch, MD, Lenna L. Liu, MD, MPH, John Neff, MD, and Joyce Yi-Frazier, PhD, for the University of Washington; Beth Loots, MPH, MSW, Rebecca O’Connor, RN, Sue Kearns, RN, Mary Klingsheim, RN, Emil Buscaino, BS, Katherine Cochrane, BS, Onel Martinez, MS, and Sharla Semana, BS, for Seattle Children’s Hospital, and Carla Greenbaum, MD, for Benaroya Research Institute. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Giuseppina Imperatore, MD, PhD, Desmond E. Williams, MD, PhD, Henry S. Kahn, MD, Bernice Moore, MBA, Gregg W. Edward, PhD, and Sharon H. Saydah, PhD. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH: Barbara Linder, MD, PhD. Central Laboratory: Santica M. Marcovina, PhD, ScD, Vinod P. Gaur, PhD, and Jessica Harting for the University of Washington Northwest Lipid Research Laboratories. Coordinating Center: Ronny Bell, PhD, MS, Ralph D’Agostino, Jr, PhD, Jasmin Divers, PhD, Wei Lang, PhD, Timothy Morgan, PhD, Michelle Naughton, PhD, Leora Henkin, MPH, MEd, Gena Hargis, MPH, Maureen T. Goldstein, BA, Jeanette Andrews, MS, Nora Fitzgerald, MS, Scott Isom, MS, and Jennifer Talton, MS, for Wake Forest School of Medicine.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Previous Presentation: These data were presented in abstract form at the American Diabetes Association 72nd Annual Scientific Sessions in Philadelphia, PA, in June, 2012.
Additional Contributions: The Writing Group thanks the many youth, their families, and their clinicians whose participation made this study possible.
Correction: This article was corrected on September 3, 2014, to clarify that the study participants were from Alberta, Canada.