Author Contributions: Dr Sah had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Sah, Loewenstein.
Acquisition of data: Sah.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Sah, Loewenstein.
Drafting of the manuscript: Sah, Loewenstein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Sah, Loewenstein.
Statistical analysis: Sah, Loewenstein.
Obtained funding: Loewenstein.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Loewenstein.
Study supervision: Loewenstein.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by Carnegie Mellon's internal departmental research funds.
Role of the Sponsors: The funder had no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Katherine Neely, MD, West Penn Allegheny Health System, assisted by sending e-mails to enable residents to participate in the study. Robert Schoen, MD, University of Pittsburgh, provided helpful comments and suggestions in the preparation of this article, and Howard Seltman, MD, PhD, Carnegie Mellon University, provided helpful statistical advice. None of these contributors received any compensation.