Author Contributions: Dr Schwartz had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Schwartz, Weiner, Harris, Binns-Calvey.
Acquisition of data: Weiner, Binns-Calvey.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Schwartz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Schwartz.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Weiner, Harris, Binns-Calvey.
Statistical analysis: Schwartz.
Obtained funding: Schwartz, Weiner, Harris.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Weiner, Harris, Binns-Calvey.
Study supervision: Schwartz.
Financial Disclosures: Drs Schwartz and Weiner reported being owners of a company that provides management consulting services to clinicians and institutions interested in collecting customer service and performance data using unannounced standardized patient methods. They have not to date received any consulting fees, honoraria, contracts, or other payments. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This project was funded in part by a National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Edward J. Stemmler, MD, Medical Education Research Fund grant. There were no other external sponsors.
Role of the Sponsor: The NBME had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: This project does not necessarily reflect NBME policy, and NBME support provides no official endorsement.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the Allan L. and Mary Graham Clinical Performance Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine and Naomi Ashley-Benedict, BA, University of Illinois at Chicago, in scheduling medical student encounters and assisting in data collection. Ms Benedict was employed by the Department of Medicine during this study as a visiting research specialist.