Author Contributions: Dr Baldwin had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty, Meltzer, Arora.
Acquisition of data: Baldwin, Daugherty.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty, Meltzer, Arora.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty, Arora.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty, Meltzer, Arora.
Statistical analysis: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty.
Obtained funding: Baldwin, Daugherty.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Baldwin, Daugherty, Arora.
Study supervision: Jena, Baldwin, Daugherty, Arora.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Jena reported receiving support from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) through UCLA/RAND Training Grant T32 HS 000046. Dr Meltzer reported receiving grants from the National Institutes of Health and AHRQ. Dr Arora reported receiving grant funding from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and from the ABIM Foundation and providing expert testimony to the Institute of Medicine on residency duty hours and to the ACGME Duty Hours Congress on the same topic.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: Meryl Prochaska, BA, University of Chicago, and Patrick Ryan, MD, ACGME, provided research assistance, for which they were paid.