Author Contributions: Dr Ma had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Ma, Wang, Ng, So, J. Chan.
Acquisition of data: Ma, Luk, Hu, Lam, Chow, Tong, Jia, Ng, So, J. Chan.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ma, Tam, Wang, Luk, Yang, A. Chan, Ho, J. Chan.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ma, Tam, Lam, A. Chan.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ma, Wang, Luk, Hu, Yang, Ho, Chow, Tong, Jia, Ng, So, J. Chan.
Statistical analysis: Ma, Tam, Ho, Ng.
Obtained funding: Ma, J. Chan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Ma, Wang, Hu, Yang, A. Chan, Chow, Tong, Jia, So, J. Chan.
Study supervision: Ma, Ng, So, J. Chan.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Ma reported receiving speakers' honoraria from Sanofi-Aventis and serving as a member of an advisory board for Pfizer, the proceeds of which go to the Chinese University of Hong Kong to support ongoing research. Dr J. Chan reported receiving research funding or speakers' honoraria from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi-Sankyo, GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Roche, and Sanofi-Aventis; serving as a member of advisory boards, and/or speaker forums, and/or steering committees of international projects sponsored by AstraZeneca, Bayer, Lilly, and Merck Sharp & Dohme; with her group and on behalf of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, holding patents to use genetic markers to predict risk of diabetes and diabetic kidney disease in Chinese populations; and in a technology transfer project, establishing a university-affiliated diabetes center (Qualigenics) to deliver a multidisciplinary chronic care program in the community (all related revenues and proceeds go to the Chinese University of Hong Kong to support ongoing research and development in diabetes). None of the coauthors reported currently holding or having filed patents relating to the information contained in the article, namely, the use of the genetic variants of the protein kinase C-β 1 gene (rs3760106, rs7404928, and rs4787733) for the prediction of diabetic kidney disease. The authors reported that they will not be pursuing any patent application relating to this information, in China or in the United States, until this information has appeared in JAMA.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by the Hong Kong Foundation for Research and Development in Diabetes established under the auspices of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Government Research Grant Committee, the Innovation and Technology Fund (ITS/088/08), and the Research Fund of the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank all medical and nursing staff of the Prince of Wales Hospital Diabetes Centre for their commitment and dedication in implementing the structured diabetes care protocol and its continuous quality improvement.