Author Contributions: Dr Zhang had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Zhang, Saaddine, Cotch, Cheng, Albright.
Acquisition of data: Chou, Cotch, Cheng, Albright, B. Klein, R. Klein.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Zhang, Saaddine, Chou, Cotch, Cheng, Geiss, Gregg, Albright.
Drafting of the manuscript: Zhang, Cheng, R. Klein.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Saaddine, Chou, Cotch, Cheng, Geiss, Gregg, Albright, B. Klein, R. Klein.
Statistical analysis: Zhang, Chou, Cheng, R. Klein.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Zhang, Saaddine, Cotch, Geiss, R. Klein.
Study supervision: Saaddine, Gregg, Albright, R. Klein.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Funding for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) retinal component was provided by the Intra Agency Agreement 05FED47304 from the Division of Diabetes Translation, CDC. Funding for the vision component was provided by the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Intramural Research Program grant Z01EY000402.
Role of the Sponsor:The NCHS was involved in the design and conduct of the NHANES study and in data collection, but was not involved in the analysis or interpretation of the study results or in the preparation of the manuscript. The Division of Diabetes Translation provided funding support for the retinal component and was involved in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and in the preparation, review, and approval of this article before submission.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC.
Additional Contributions: We gratefully acknowledge the important statistical contribution of Theodore J. Thompson, MS, Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Mr Thompson did not receive compensation in association with his contribution to this article. We also thank the NHANES participants without whom this study would not be possible.