Author Contributions: Drs Walton and Cunningham had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Walton, Chermack, Shope, Bingham, Zimmerman, Blow, Cunningham.
Acquisition of data: Walton, Chermack, Blow, Cunningham.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Walton, Chermack, Zimmerman, Cunningham.
Drafting of the manuscript: Walton, Chermack, Bingham, Zimmerman, Cunningham.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Walton, Chermack, Shope, Zimmerman, Blow, Cunningham.
Statistical analysis: Walton, Chermack, Cunningham.
Obtained funding: Walton, Chermack, Shope, Bingham, Zimmerman, Blow, Cunningham.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shope, Blow.
Study supervision: Walton, Chermack, Cunningham.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) grant 014889.
Role of the Sponsor: The NIAAA had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank project staff for their work, as well as Pat Bergeron (not paid by the project) for administrative assistance and Linping Duan, MS, for statistical support (paid analyst for the project), both from the University of Michigan. Finally, we thank the patients and medical staff at Hurley Medical Center for their support of this project.