Author Contributions: Dr Haukoos had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Haukoos, Conroy, Eisert, Thrun, Wilson, Forsyth, Johnson.
Acquisition of data: Haukoos, Hopkins, Conroy, Silverman.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Haukoos, Hopkins, Conroy, Byyny, Eisert, Hutchinson, Heffelfinger.
Drafting of the manuscript: Haukoos, Conroy, Hutchinson, Heffelfinger.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Haukoos, Hopkins, Conroy, Silverman, Byyny, Eisert, Thrun, Wilson, Hutchinson, Forsyth, Johnson, Heffelfinger.
Statistical analysis: Haukoos, Hopkins, Conroy, Hutchinson.
Obtained funding: Haukoos, Eisert, Thrun, Wilson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Haukoos, Hopkins, Conroy, Silverman, Byyny, Eisert, Thrun, Wilson, Hutchinson, Forsyth, Johnson, Heffelfinger.
Study supervision: Haukoos, Heffelfinger.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Haukoos reported receiving unrestricted research support from Abbott Laboratories and being supported in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Ms Hopkins reported being supported previously by an unrestricted research grant from Abbott Laboratories and supported in full during the course of this project by the CDC. Dr Thrun reported receiving support from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) and the CDC and having been a paid consultant for the CDC on issues related to HIV prevention. Dr Johnson reported participating in advisory boards and serving as a consultant for both ViiV Healthcare and Gilead Sciences Inc. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by a cooperative agreement (U18 PS000314) with the CDC (J.S.H.) and supported in part by an Independent Scientist Award (K02 HS017526) from the AHRQ (J.S.H.) and a Career Development Award from the Colorado Center for AIDS Research (R.L.B.).
Role of the Sponsor: The CDC reviewed the study design but had no role in the design or conduct of the study or in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data. The manuscript was reviewed and approved by the CDC prior to submission. Dr Haukoos takes responsibility for the manuscript as a whole. The AHRQ and the Colorado Center for AIDS Research had no role in the design or conduct of the study.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC or the AHRQ.
Current or past members of the Denver Emergency Department HIV Testing Research Consortium and the Denver Emergency Department HIV Opt-Out Study Group: Bob Bongiovanni, MA; Beth Dillon, MSW, MPH; and Anne Marlow-Geter, MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), Denver; Eric Christensen, RN, BSN; Jennifer Saltzsieder, RN; Shawn Ullrich, RN, NPM; and Melinda Whalen, RN, BSN, CEN, Denver Health Medical Center (DHMC), Denver.
Previous Presentations: Parts of this study were presented at the HIV Diagnostics Conference; Atlanta, Georgia; December 6, 2007; the 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Boston, Massachusetts; February 5 and 6, 2008; the National Summit on HIV Diagnosis, Prevention, and Access to Care; Arlington, Virginia; November 20, 2008; the 136th American Public Health Association Meeting; San Diego, California; October 28, 2008; the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Annual Meeting; New Orleans, Louisiana; May 16, 2009; and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Annual Meeting; Phoenix, Arizona; June 3, 2010.
Additional Contributions: We thank Bryana Addison, LCSW (DHMC); Alexandra Balaji, PhD (CDC); Jim Beebe, PhD, D(ABMM) (CDPHE); Janell Bezdek (CDPHE); Caroline Brandon (DHMC); Brian C. Boyett, MS (CDC); Kris Cambria, MSW (DHMC); Steve Cantrill, MD (DHMC); Kevin P. Delaney, MPH (CDC); Natalie Edgar (DHMC); Anthony Edwards (DHMC); Michael Fuhriman (Denver Public Health [DPH]); Malinda Gonzales (DPH); Amy Graepler, MT(ASCP) (DHMC); Jennifer Guess, MT(ASCP) (DHMC); Erica Higgins, MSW (DHMC); Ellie Jensen, DO (DHMC); Linda Kaufman (DHMC); Roger J. Lewis, MD, PhD (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center); Shane Lieberman, MA (DHMC); Wendy McDermott, MSW (DHMC); Yesenia Mendez (CDPHE); Erin Moore, LCSW (DHMC); Melissa Paddock (DHMC); Pragna Patel, MD, MPH (CDC); Paul Schultz (DHMC); Athena Sheldon, MSW (DHMC); Rachael Slaughter, LCSW (DHMC); Briana R. Sprague (CDPHE); LaTasha Stanley, MSW (DHMC); Cheryl Stephenson, AAS, CHAM (DHMC); Mark Tartletsky, MT(ASCP), MCIS (DHMC); Andrew C. Voetsch, PhD (CDC); Diane Weed, MA, MT(ASCP) (DHMC); Julia Weise, LCSW, MSW (DPH); members of the Colorado Emergency Medicine Research Center; and all ED and laboratory staff at Denver Health Medical Center. Ms Addison, Ms Brandon, Ms Cambria, Dr Cantrill, Ms Edgar, Mr Edwards, Ms Higgins, Dr Jensen, Mr Lieberman, Ms McDermott, Ms Moore, Ms Paddock, Mr Schultz, Ms Sheldon, and Ms Slaughter received compensation for their contributions.