Study concept and design: Al-Shahi Salman, White, Counsell, Wedderburn, Sellar, Warlow.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Al-Shahi Salman, White, Counsell, du Plessis, van Beijnum, Josephson, Wilkinson, Wedderburn, Chandy, St. George, Sellar.
Drafting of the manuscript: Al-Shahi Salman, White, Wedderburn.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Al-Shahi Salman, White, Counsell, du Plessis, van Beijnum, Josephson, Wilkinson, Chandy, St. George, Sellar, Warlow.
Statistical analysis: Al-Shahi Salman, Counsell, Wedderburn, Chandy.
Obtained funding: Al-Shahi Salman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Counsell, du Plessis, Josephson, Wilkinson.
Study supervision: Al-Shahi Salman, White, Warlow.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr White reports receipt of grants and personal fees from Covidien, Codman, and Microvention Terumo during the conduct of the study. No other disclosures were reported.
Scottish Audit of Intracranial Vascular Malformations Collaborators: Steering Committee: R. Al-Shahi Salman (NHS Lothian), S. Baird (NHS National Services Scotland), J. J. Bhattacharya (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde), C. E. Counsell (NHS Grampian), E. J. St. George (NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde), P. M. White (Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust), V. Ritchie (retired), R. C. Roberts (retired), R. J. Sellar (retired), and C. P. Warlow (retired). Collaborators:Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen—Syed Al-Haddad, Richard Coleman, Carl Counsell, Paul Crowley, David Currie, Roelf Dijkhuizen, Callum Duncan, Kirsten Elliot, Linda Gerrie, James Grieve, Gillian Hall, John Hern, Russell Hewett, George Kaar, Emmanuel Labram, James MacKenzie, Mary-Joan Macleod, Margaret Ann Macleod, James McLay, Alison Murray, Shona Olson, John Reid, Olive Robb, Mano Shanmuganathan, Elizabeth Visser, John Webster, Peter Whitfield, Steve Wilkinson, David Williams; Ayr Hospital, Ayr—Mark Ablett; Borders General Hospital, Melrose—Luis Ferrando, David Hardwick, Ravi Malhotra, Hamish McRitchie, Andrew Pearson, John Reid, David Simpson, Paul Syme; Caithness General Hospital, Wick—Intesar Malik, Tim Shallcross; Crosshouse Hospital, Kilmarnock—Neil Corrigan, Patrick Crumlish, Mike Dean, Elspeth Lindsay, George McLaughlin, Morag McMillan, David Rawlings; Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle—George Athey, John Edge, Rachel England, Farshid Fallahi, John Jackson, Ian Khechane, Robert McNeill, Paul Jennings; Dr Gray’s Hospital, Elgin—John Addison, Sandy Forbat, Ken Brown. Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary, Dumfries—Margaret Aird, David Hill, Paul Kelly, Uwe Spelmeyer; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh—Andrew Coull, Tom Fitzgerald, Simon Hart, Graham McKillop, Gillian Mead, Dilip Patel; Edinburgh University Medical School—Juan Carlos Arango, Anthony Busuttil, Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton; Falkirk and District Royal Infirmary, Falkirk—Josephine Barrie, Emma Beveridge, Linda Buchanan, Raj Burgul, Kumar Jawad, Robert Johnstone, Christian Neumann, Louise Stewart; Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow—Desmond Alcorn, Ramsay Vallance; Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow—John Burns, Peter Langhorne, Gordon Lowe, Allan Reid, Giles Roditi, David Stott, Jacqueline Taylor, Fiona Wright; Hairmyres Hospital, East Kilbride—Jenny Ballantyne, Donna Edwards, Alastair Forrester, Fiona Gardner, Gillian Harold, Fong Lau, Brian MacInnes, Sarah Millar, Frank Mohsen, Clifford Murch, Brendan Martin, Brigitte Yip; Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow—Likhith Alankandy, Tracey Baird, John Ballantyne, Philip Barlow, Maziar Behebani, Jo Bhattacharya, Ian Bone, John Brecknell, Katie Brennan, Jennifer Brown, Anne Burke, Tiernan Byrnes, Peter Connick, Sarah Cooper, Krishna Dani, David Doyle, Rod Duncan, Laurence Dunn, William Durward, Maria Farrugia, Sarah Finlayson, Peter Foley, Paul French, Cormack Gavin, George Gorrie, Kamal Goyal, David Graham, John Greene, Donald Grosset, Donald Hadley, Oliver Jack, Sarah Jenkins, Robin Johnston, Jay Jay, Shabin Joshi, Giridhar Kalamangalam, Andrew Kay, David Kean, Peter Kennedy, Abi Kumar, John Paul Leach, Imran Liaquat, Kenneth Lindsay, Patricia Littlechild, Arup Malik, Cameron Mann, Vicky Marshall, Calan Mathieson, Paul McGeoch, Aileen McGonigal, Richard Metcalfe, Sarah Miller, Manoj Mohan, Ian Morrison, Keith Muir, Edward Newman, Clair Nicholson, James Nicoll, Colin O’Leary, Mary Murphy, James Overell, Vakis Papanastassiou, Richard Petty, Alan Ramsay, Bhaskara Rao, Saif Razvi, Susan Robinson, Aline Russell, Raju Sangra, Celestine Santosh, Pushkar Shah, Aslam Siddiqui, Neil Simms, Phil Simpson, Stuart Sloss, Ursula Schulz, Edward Jerome St George, William Taylor, Evelyn Teasdale, Graeme Teasdale, Rachel Thomas, Alok Tyagi, Leighton Walker, Donal Walsh, Alistair Weir, Stewart Webb, Mark White, Hugh Willison; Inverclyde Royal Hospital, Greenock—Frank Kelly, Patrick Walsh; Lorn and Islands District General Hospital, Oban—Hasan Fattah, Fiona Johnson; Monkland District General, Airdrie—Ken Wallers; Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne—Daniel Birchall, Anil Gholkar, Vijay Jayakrishnan, Dipayan Mitra, Calvin Soh, Keng Tay; Ninewells Hospital, Dundee—Nazaar Alsanjari, Eric Ballantyne, Emer Campbell, Frank Carey, Duncan Davidson, Zuzana Dean, Alex Doney, Rahim Elashall, Sam Eljamel, Craig Heath, Graeme Houston, Avinash Kanodia, Alex Kivjazovas, Ronald MacWalter, Gavin Main, David Mowle, Jonathan O’Riordan, John Parratt, Jayne Pritchard, Richard Roberts, Gillian Stewart, Robert Swingler, Vovo Szepielow, John Tainsh, Kathleen White, Ian Zealley; Perth Royal Infirmary, Perth—John Harper, Stuart Johnston, Ian Lightbody, Richard Murray; Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline—Myles Connor, Hamish Ireland, Nicola Chapman, John McKenzie, Sue Pound; Raigmore Hospital, Inverness—George Aitken, Paul Findlay, Patrick Fox, David Goff, Peter Henry, Ann Macleod, John Miller, David Nichols, Helen Shannon, Kate Taylor, Alistair Todd, Frank Williams; Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley—Lindsay Erwin, Eleanor Murray, Alan Wallace; St John’s Hospital, Livingston—Sarah Chambers, Donald Farquhar, Katherine Jackson, Ian Parker, Scott Ramsay, John Wilson; Stirling Royal Infirmary, Stirling—Malcolm Macleod, Susan McCallan, Peter McDermott, Robert Prempeh; Stobhill NHS Trust, Glasgow—Thomas Bryant, Fiona Bryden, Pamela Fraser, Helen Griffiths, Christine McAlpine, Alastair McCafferty, Ian Mcleod, John Shand, Rhona Stevens; Stracathro Hospital, Brechin—Ian Gillanders, John Tainsh; Victoria Hospital, Kirkcaldy—Susan Bahnsen, Caroline Clark, Vere Cvoro, Bill Reid, Martin Zeidler; Victoria Infirmary, Glasgow—John Calder, Andrew Downie, Mike Gronski, Jean Lauder, Ian McLaughlin, Jan Potter, Margaret Roberts; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh—Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Rebecca Aylward, Chandra Balasubramaniyam, Jeanne Bell, Peter Bodkin, Paul Brennan, Chris Butler, Gurjit Chohan, Helen Cook, Don Collie, Roger Cull, Richard Davenport, Martin Dennis, Chris Derry, Fergus Doubal, Rahul Dubey, Sara Erridge, Andrew Farrall, Mike Fitzpatrick, Ioannis Fouyas, Rod Gibson, Robin Grant, Anna Gregor, Gordon Gubitz, Julie Hall, Peter Hand, Colm Henry, Fiona Hughes, Brian Innes, James Ironside, Susan Kealey, Sarah Keir, Andrew Kelso, Peter Keston, Richard Knight, Joseph Kwan, Marco Lee, Richard Lindley, Christian Lueck, Greg Moran, Colin Mumford, Katy Murray, Lynn Myles, Mary Porteous, Gillian Potter, Jerard Ross, Thomas Russell, Peter Sandercock, Robin Sellar, Colin Smith, Patrick Statham, James Steers, Jon Stone, Cathie Sudlow, David Summers, Joanna Wardlaw, Charles Warlow, Nick Weir, Belinda Weller, Phil White, Will Whiteley, Ian Whittle, Bob Will, Anna Williams, Edith Wood, Wendy Young, Adam Zeman; Western Infirmary, Glasgow—Martin Brodie, Michael Cowan, Ed Kalkman, Kevin Kelly, Gordon McInnes, Nigel McMillan, John Reid, Peter Semple, Matthew Walters; Western Isles Hospital, Stornoway—Ian Riach; Wishaw General Hospital, Wishaw—Desmond Alcorn, Marie Callaghan, Mohammed El-Sayed, Mustafa Fleet, Barbara Macpherson, Susan Reid, John Roberts; Woodend General Hospital, Aberdeen—Steven Hamilton, Francis Smith.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Medical Research Council (grants G84/5176, G108/613, and G1002605); the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government (grants K/MRS/50/C2704 and CZB/4/35); the Stroke Association (grant TSA04/01); the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research; and the Netherlands Heart Foundation (grant 2002B138).
Role of the Sponsor: The study sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.