Liver cancer, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.1,2 Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for an estimated 78% of global HCC cases.3 To determine trends in HCC incidence in the United States, CDC analyzed data for the period 2001-2006 (the most recent data available) from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) surveillance system. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that the average annual incidence rate of HCC for 2001-2006 was 3.0 per 100,000 persons and increased significantly from 2.7 per 100,000 persons in 2001 to 3.2 in 2006, with an average annual percentage change in incidence rate (APC) of 3.5%. The largest increases in HCC incidence rates were among whites (APC = 3.8), blacks (APC = 4.8), and persons aged 50-59 years (APC = 9.1). Among states, HCC incidence rates varied widely, ranging from 1.4 per 100,000 in South Dakota to 5.5 in Hawaii. The results demonstrate a continuation of long-term increases in HCC incidence and persistent HCC racial/ethnic disparities. Development of viral hepatitis services, including screening with care referral for persons chronically infected with HBV or HCV, full implementation of vaccine-based strategies to eliminate hepatitis B, and improved public health surveillance are needed to help reverse the trend in HCC.