Author Contributions: Dr Lindenauer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lindenauer, Pekow, Benjamin, Rothberg.
Acquisition of data: Lindenauer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lindenauer, Pekow, Lahti, Lee, Rothberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lindenauer, Pekow, Lahti, Lee.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pekow, Lahti, Benjamin, Rothberg.
Statistical analysis: Pekow, Lahti, Lee.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lindenauer, Benjamin.
Study supervision: Lindenauer, Pekow, Rothberg.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Premier Healthcare Informatics, Charlotte, North Carolina, provided the data used to conduct this study; otherwise, this study was conducted without external funding.
Role of the Sponsor: Premier Healthcare Informatics had no role in the design, conduct, analysis, interpretation of data, or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank Chris Craver, MA, senior research associate, Premier Healthcare Informatics, for his assistance with obtaining data used in the study and Aruna Priya, MS, Center for Quality of Care Research, for her assistance with statistical analyses required in the revised version of this manuscript, neither of whom received compensation beyond their salaries.