Author Contributions: Dr Piacentini had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, Ginsburg, Deckersbach, Dziura, Walkup.
Acquisition of data: Piacentini, Woods, Chang, Walkup.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, Ginsburg, Dziura, Walkup.
Drafting of the manuscript: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Ginsburg, Dziura, Walkup.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, Ginsburg, Deckersbach, Dziura, Levi-Pearl, Walkup.
Statistical analysis: Scahill, Dziura.
Obtained funding: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Walkup.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, Walkup.
Study supervision: Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Chang, Ginsburg.
Financial Disclosures: Drs Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, Ginsburg, Deckersbach, and Walkup report receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for treatment manuals on tic disorders. Drs Piacentini, Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, Chang, and Walkup report receiving honoraria for CME presentations from the Tourette Syndrome Association. Drs Piacentini, Woods, and Walkup receive royalties from Guilford Press for a book on Tourette disorder. Dr Piacentini reports receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for treatment manuals on child obsessive-compulsive disorder and APA Books for other books on child mental health, speaking honoraria from Janssen-Cilag, and support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Pfizer for clinical trials funded by NIMH. Dr Woods reports receiving book royalties from New Harbinger and Springer Publications. Dr Scahill reports receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for a textbook on pediatric psychopharmacology; serving as a consultant for Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Neuropharm, Supernus, and Shire Pharmaceuticals; receiving research support from Seaside Therapeutics and Shire Pharmaceuticals; and receiving support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Janssen Pharmaceuticals and Shire Pharmaceuticals for clinical trials funded by NIMH. Dr Wilhelm reports receiving support in the form of free medication and matching placebo from Forest Laboratories for clinical trials funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and receiving book royalties from Guilford Publications, New Harbinger Publications, and Oxford University Press and speaking honoraria from PRIMEDIA Healthcare, a publicly traded company working as a logistics collaborator for the MGH Psychiatry Academy (the education programs conducted by the MGH Psychiatry Academy were supported through Independent Medical Education grants from pharmaceutical companies cosupporting the overall program, along with participant tuition). Dr Deckersbach reports receiving consulting fees from the Constella Group for serving as a reviewer for the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program. He also reports receiving honoraria, consulting fees, and/or royalties from Medacorp, MGH Psychiatry Academy, BrainCells Inc, Systems Research and Applications Corp, Boston University, the Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research, and National Association of Social Workers–Massachusetts. He reports participating in research funded by Janssen, Forest Research Institute, Shire Development Inc, Medtronic, Cyberonics, and Northstar. Dr Walkup reports receiving consulting fees from Eli Lilly and JAZZ Pharmaceuticals and lecture fees from CMP Media, Medical Education Reviews, McMahon Group, DiMedix, and the Tourette Syndrome Association. He reports receiving free drug and matching placebo from Pfizer and Lilly and free drugs from Abbott for NIMH-funded clinical trials. He reports receiving fees for consultation with defense counsel and submission of written reports in litigation involving GlaxoSmithKline. No other disclosures relevant to this article were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant R01MH070802 from the National Institute of Mental Health to Dr Piacentini, with subcontracts to Drs Woods, Scahill, Wilhelm, Peterson, and Walkup. Drs Scahill and Dziura receive support from the Yale University Clinical and Translational Sciences Award grant UL1 RR024139 from the National Center for Research Resources, NIH.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization was not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBITS) Study Team: The following individuals participated and were compensated for participation in this study: Site Principal Investigators: John Piacentini, PhD (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]), John T. Walkup, MD (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions [JHU]), Douglas W. Woods, PhD (University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee), Lawrence Scahill, PhD, MSN (Yale Child Study Center [Yale]), Sabine Wilhelm, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital [MGH]/Harvard Medical School), Alan L. Peterson, PhD (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio [UTHSCSA]). Study Coinvestigators: Susanna Chang, PhD (UCLA), Golda S. Ginsburg, PhD (JHU), Thilo Deckersbach, PhD (MGH/Harvard Medical School), Sue Levi-Pearl, MA (TSA [Tourette Syndrome Association]). Study Coordinators/Research Assistants: Diane Findley, PhD (Yale, supervising coordinator), Brian Buzzella, BA, Melody Keller, BA, Amanda Pearlman, BA, Michele Rozenman, BA (UCLA); Amanda Adcock, MS, Christine Conelea, MS, Michael Himle, PhD, Michael Walther, MS (UWM); Catherine Gaze, PhD, Hayden Kepley, PhD, Luke Mason, BA, Matthew Specht, PhD (JHU); Dieu-My Phan, MSW, LCSW, Shana Franklin, BA (MGH), Trisha Benson, MS, Elizabeth Cedillos, BA, Cindy Luethcke, BA, Annette Martinez, BA (UTHSCSA); Joseph McGuire, BA, Ethan Schilling, BA (Yale). Cognitive Behavior Therapists: Melody Keller, BA, Eunice Kim, PhD, Joyce Lee, PhD, Tara Peris, PhD, Lesley Stahl, PhD (UCLA); Christopher Flessner, MS, Amy Sato, MS (UWM), Kelly Drake, PhD, Hayden Kepley, PhD, Julie Newman Kingery, PhD, Courtney Pierce-Keeton, PhD, Jessica Samson, PsyD, Matthew Specht, PhD (JHU). Independent Evaluators: Janice Keener, MA, Katharina Kircanski, MA, Audra Langley, PhD, Tami Roblek, PhD (UCLA); Michael Gaffrey, MS, Frank Gallo, MS, Brook Marcks, MS (UWM); Mary Beth Beaudry, MSN, MPH, Margaret Schlossberg, PhD (JHU). Data Center: Lawrence Scahill, PhD, MSN, James Dziura, PhD, Lily Katsovich, MS, MBA, Haibei Liu, MPH, Stephanie Argraves, MS, Allison Gavaletz, BA, Denis Sukhodolsky, PhD (Yale). Grant Management: Judit Ungar, MSW, Sue Levi-Pearl, MA, Heather Cowley, Julie Noulas (TSA).
Additional Contributions: We thank the children and their families who made this study possible and Joel Sherrill, PhD (NIMH), Gerald Golden, MD, and Kevin Black, MD (data and safety monitoring board). Drs Golden and Black received an honorarium for their contributions. Dr Sherrill did not receive compensation.