Author Contributions: Dr Vichinsky had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Rule, Armstrong.
Acquisition of data: Vichinsky, Weiner, Rule, Truran, Kasten, Eggleston, Kesler, McMahon, Orringer, Harrington, Kalinyak, De Castro, Kutlar, Rutherford, Johnson, Bessman, Jordan, Armstrong.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Rule, Truran, Kasten, Eggleston, Kesler, McMahon, De Castro, Bessman, Jordan, Armstrong.
Drafting of the manuscript: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Rule, Eggleston, Kesler, McMahon, Jordan, Armstrong.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Weiner, Rule, Truran, Kasten, Eggleston, Kesler, McMahon, Orringer, Harrington, Kalinyak, De Castro, Kutlar, Rutherford, Johnson, Bessman, Jordan, Armstrong.
Statistical analysis: Eggleston, Kesler.
Obtained funding: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Rutherford, Bessman, Armstrong.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Weiner, Rule, Truran, Kasten, Kesler, McMahon, Harrington, Rutherford, Johnson, Bessman, Armstrong.
Study supervision: Vichinsky, Neumayr, Gold, Rule, Truran, McMahon, De Castro, Armstrong.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Award No. U54HL070587.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Neuropsychological Dysfunction and Neuroimaging Adult Sickle Cell Anemia Study Group: Compensation was not received and the investigators had no conflicts of interest. National Institutes of Health: Greg Evans, PhD, was the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute project officer for this effort. Investigative Team: F. Daniel Armstrong, PhD, Barry Eggleston, MS, Jeffrey I. Gold, PhD, Karen Kesler, PhD, Susan Lieff, PhD, Lynne Neumayr, MD, Elliott Vichinsky, MD, and Michael W. Weiner, MD. Statistical and Data Coordinating Center: Rho Federal Systems of Rho Inc with Karen Kesler, PhD, Susan Lieff, PhD, Barry Eggleston, MS, Emily Kunka, Marsha McMurray, Allison Muma, MHA, Cathie Snyder, and Jamie Spencer. Central Neuropsychology Site: Childrens Hospital Los Angeles/University of Southern California with Jeffrey I. Gold, PhD, and Nicole Mahrer. Central Neuroimaging Site: The Veterans Health Research Institute (NCIRE) with Michael Weiner, MD, Randall Rule, PhD, Diana Truran, and Jeffrey Kasten. Participating Sites: This study was a collaboration of the following institutions, investigators, neuropsychologists, radiologists, and study coordinators. Site principal investigators are indicated by asterisks. Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (Lillian McMahon, MD,* Glenn Barest, MD, Peter Mosbach, PhD, Asif Qureshi); Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, Oakland, California (Elliott Vichinsky, MD,* Audrey Bethke, PhD, Kenneth Martin, MD, Lynne Neumayr, MD,* Susan Paulukonis); Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and University Hospital Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (Clinton Joiner, MD,* Karen Kalinyak, MD,* Monique Lumpkin, MSW, Lori Crosby, PsyD, Donna Diedenhofer, BA, Annette R. Lavender, RN, MSN, APRN-BC, Tamara Nordheim, BSN, RN, Marsha Nortz Gragert, PhD, Zahida Yasin, MD); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (Laura M. De Castro, MD,* Mary R. Abrams, MPH, Christle Cameron, Miriam Feliu, PhD, Jude C Jonassaint, RN, Christopher Lascola, MD, PhD, Marilyn J. Telen, MD); Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (Abdullah Kutlar, MD,* Gregory Lee, PhD, Kavita Natarajan, MD, Leigh Wells, MSN, Adrienne Wilson, MS); Memorial Cancer Institute, Hollywood, Florida (Lanetta Jordan, MD, MPH,* Bonnie Aberson, PsyD, Bruce Braffman, MD, Atif Hussein, MD, Peter A. Gold, PsyD, Cheri G. Surloff, PhD, Mallika Venkataramani); University of Miami, Miami, Florida (F. Daniel Armstrong, PhD,* Rita Bhatia, MD, Thomas Harrington, MD, Elizabeth Willen, PhD); University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Eugene P. Orringer, MD,* Kenneth I. Ataga, MD, Sutapa Ford, PhD, Susan K. Jones, RN, J. Keith Smith, MD, PhD); University of Southern California, Los Angeles (Cage Johnson, MD,* Pat Corley, RN, Carol McCleary, PhD, Chi-Shing Zee, MD); University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (Joel David Bessman, MD,* Phyllis Crawford, RN, Lisa Hernandez Garcia, Stephen S. Ladner, MD, Alison Rutledge, PhD, Vicki M. Soukup, MD); University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas (Cynthia J. Rutherford, MD,* Munro Cullum, PhD, Bonnie L. Davis, RN, Laurie Rilling, PhD).