Enhanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and treatment have been proposed as a strategy to further decrease AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and to reduce HIV transmission.1 Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) stops viral replication, rendering HIV-1 RNA levels undetectable in plasma and sexual fluids. As a result, continued use of HAART leads to long-term remission of HIV disease and decreased risk of HIV transmission. The latter has been most dramatically illustrated with vertical transmission: use of HAART has virtually eliminated vertical HIV transmission in the developed world. A protective effect of HAART has also been reported in HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples and in longitudinal population-based studies. More recently, this association has also been substantiated in a longitudinal cohort involving intravenous drug users.2
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