Author Contributions: Dr Deyo and Messrs Martin and Kreuter had full access to the data through 2006; Drs Mirza and Goodman had full access to the data for all years of the study. Drs Deyo, Mirza, and Goodman take responsibility for the integrity of the data; Drs Deyo and Mirza and Messrs Martin and Kreuter take responsibility for the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Deyo, Mirza, Martin, Jarvik.
Acquisition of data: Deyo, Mirza, Martin, Kreuter, Jarvik.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Deyo, Mirza, Martin, Goodman
Drafting of the manuscript: Deyo, Mirza
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Deyo, Mirza, Martin, Kreuter, Goodman, Jarvik.
Statistical analysis: Martin, Kreuter.
Obtained funding: Deyo, Mirza, Jarvik
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mirza, Martin, Kreuter, Goodman, Jarvik
Study supervision: Deyo, Mirza
Financial Disclosures: Dr Deyo reported receiving honoraria from the nonprofit Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making and from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and that he holds an endowed chair at Oregon Health and Science University made possible by a gift from Kaiser Permanente. Prior to August 2008, Drs Deyo and Mirza's research program benefited from a gift to the University of Washington from Surgical Dynamics, which was acquired by Stryker Corporation more than 5 years ago. Messrs Martin and Kreuter reported receiving partial salary support from the Surgical Dynamics gift, which was made prior to its acquisition. Dr Goodman reported that his current research funding support comes from the following: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institute on Aging, National Cancer Institute, and Wellpoint Foundation. He reported receiving consulting fees from the Vermont Department of Banking, Insurance, Securities, and Health Care Administration; speaking fees from Baystate Medical Center, World Congress, Brigham and Women's Hospital, ESRI Inc, Mt Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, Rutgers University, Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, American Medical Association, AMERIGROUP Inc, Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine, New Hampshire American College of Physicians, Connecticut Children's Hospital, Iowa Health Business Alliance, OCS Inc, Illinois Hospital Association, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Health Action Council, Cleveland Ohio, Texas Medical Association, National Hospice Workgroup, National Association of Health Data Organizations, St Peters University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, and Massachusetts Hospital Association. Dr Jarvik reported that he receives consulting fees from HealthHelp, a radiology benefits management corporation; that he is a cofounder and stockholder of PhysioSonics, a high-intensity focused ultrasound company; that he owns stock in Nevro, a company that develops magnetic resonance imaging software for peripheral nerve analysis; that he has received research support in the past from the General Electric/Association of University of Radiologists Radiology Research Academic Fellowship and the Radiological Society of North America, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, and the Veterans Affairs; and that he currently receives support from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by grants 1R01AR054912-01A2 from the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; 1RC1AG036268-01 from the National Institute on Aging; and 1UL1RR024140-01 from the National Center for Research Resources.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors did not participate in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Institutes of Health, Oregon Health and Science University, the University of Washington, or Dartmouth College.