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Review | Clinician's Corner

Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer:  A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies FREE

Susanna C. Larsson, PhD; Nicola Orsini, PhD; Alicja Wolk, DMSc
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


JAMA. 2010;303(11):1077-1083. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.263.
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Published online

Context Mounting evidence indicates that vitamin B6, a coenzyme involved in nearly 100 enzymatic reactions, may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.

Objective To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of vitamin B6 intake or blood levels of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP; the active form of vitamin B6) with risk of colorectal cancer.

Data Sources Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to February 2010, with no restrictions. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved articles.

Study Selection We included prospective studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between vitamin B6 intake or blood PLP levels and the risk of colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer.

Data Extraction Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Study-specific RRs were pooled using a random-effects model.

Data Synthesis Nine studies on vitamin B6 intake and 4 studies on blood PLP levels were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest vs lowest category of vitamin B6 intake and blood PLP levels were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.75-1.07) and 0.52 (95% CI, 0.38-0.71), respectively. There was heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B6 intake (P = .01) but not among studies of blood PLP levels (P = .95). Omitting 1 study that contributed substantially to the heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B6 intake yielded a pooled RR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 49% for every 100-pmol/mL increase (approximately 2 SDs) in blood PLP levels (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69).

Conclusion Vitamin B6 intake and blood PLP levels were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in this meta-analysis.

Figures in this Article

Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the principal active coenzyme form of vitamin B6, is involved in almost 100 enzymatic reactions.1 One function of vitamin B6 is its role in the 1-carbon metabolic pathway, which involves the transfer of 1-carbon groups for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. Deficiency of vitamin B6 has been associated with considerably impaired 1-carbon metabolism in animals.2Quiz Ref IDHence, low vitamin B6 levels may increase colorectal cancer risk through aberrations in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation.3 Vitamin B6 may also suppress colorectal carcinogenesis by reducing cell proliferation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nitric oxide synthesis.46Quiz Ref IDMajor food sources of vitamin B6 include fortified cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy vegetables, and some fruits (eg, bananas and avocado).1

Findings from prospective studies that have examined the association between vitamin B6 intake or PLP levels in the blood and the risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence from prospective studies on vitamin B6 intake or blood levels of PLP and the risk of colorectal cancer by summarizing it quantitatively with a meta-analytic approach.

Search Strategy

We performed a literature search to February 2010 using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases without restrictions using the following search terms: (vitamin B6 or pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) and (colorectal cancer or colon cancer or rectal cancer). Moreover, we reviewed the reference lists from retrieved articles to search for further relevant studies. This systematic review was planned, conducted, and reported in adherence to standards of quality for reporting meta-analyses.7

Eligibility Criteria

Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: (1) prospective design; (2) the exposure of interest was intake of vitamin B6 or blood (plasma or serum) levels of PLP; (3) the outcome of interest was colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer; and (4) relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (or data to calculate these) were reported. If data were duplicated in more than 1 study, we included the study with the largest number of cases.

Data Extraction

The following data were extracted from each study: the first author's last name, publication year, country where the study was performed, study period, participant sex and age, sample size (cases and controls or cohort size), measure and range of exposure, variables adjusted for in the analysis, and RR estimates with corresponding 95% CIs for the highest vs lowest categories of vitamin B6 intake or for each category of blood PLP levels. We extracted the RRs that reflected the greatest degree of control for potential confounders for use in the main analyses. If available, we also extracted the age-adjusted RRs. For 1 study that reported results for vitamin B6 intake jointly stratified by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (with 1 common reference group),8 we extracted the RRs for the highest vs lowest tertiles of vitamin B6 intake in the group with the CC genotype (wild-type). The study quality was assessed using the 9-star Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.9 Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 authors (S.C.L. and N.O.), with disagreements resolved by consensus.

Statistical Analysis

Study-specific RR estimates were combined using a random-effects model, which considers both within-study and between-study variation.10 For 1 study that reported results for colon and rectal cancer separately,11 we combined the 2 RR estimates and then included the pooled RR estimate in the meta-analysis. If results were reported for both dietary and total vitamin B6 (foods and supplements combined), as in 1 study,12 we used the results for total vitamin B6 in the main analysis. In the dose-response meta-analysis of blood PLP levels, we used the method proposed by Greenland and Longnecker13 and Orsini et al14 to compute the trend from the correlated log RR estimates across categories of PLP levels. For each study, the median level of PLP for each category was assigned to each corresponding RR estimate. We examined a potential nonlinear dose-response relationship between PLP levels and colorectal cancer by modeling PLP levels using restricted cubic splines with 3 knots at percentiles 25%, 50%, and 75% of the distribution.15 A P value for nonlinearity was calculated by testing the null hypothesis that the coefficient of the second spline is equal to 0.

Statistical heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by using the Q and I2 statistics.16 We performed a sensitivity analysis in which one study at a time was removed and the rest analyzed to evaluate whether the results could have been affected markedly by a single study. We also conducted analyses stratified by geographic area, study quality, range of exposure, and source of vitamin B6 intake (foods only or foods and supplements combined). Publication bias was evaluated with the use of the Egger regression asymmetry test.17 All statistical analyses were performed with Stata software, version 10 (Stata Corp, College Station, Texas). P <.05 was considered statistically significant.

Literature Search

The detailed steps of our literature search are shown in Figure 1. Briefly, we identified 11 potentially relevant articles concerning vitamin B6 intake8,11,12,1825 and 4 articles on blood PLP levels2629 in relation to risk of colorectal, colon, or rectal cancer. Three articles on vitamin B6 intake were excluded because of duplicate reports from the same study population.2325 The remaining articles, including 8 on vitamin B6 intake (including 9 studies because 1 article21 reported results from 2 independent cohorts)8,11,12,1822 and 4 on blood PLP levels,2629 were included in the meta-analysis.

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Figure 1. Selection of Studies for Inclusion in Meta-analysis
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Study Characteristics

The 9 studies on vitamin B6 intake (8 cohort studies and 1 nested case-control study) were published between 2002 and 2009 (Table 1) and involved a total of 6064 cases. Five studies were conducted in the United States, 2 in Europe, and 2 in Asia. In the 3 studies that reported baseline characteristics of the study population by vitamin B6 intake,12,18,19 a high vitamin B6 intake tended to be associated with older age, more physical activity, less smoking, lower alcohol consumption, and higher folate and red meat intakes. Only 2 reports provided results for total vitamin B6 intake from foods and supplements combined,12,21 and none reported results for vitamin B6 supplement use alone. The 4 nested case-control studies on blood PLP levels (comprising a total of 883 cases and 1424 controls) were published between 2005 and 2009; 3 were conducted in the United States and measured plasma PLP levels and 1 was conducted in Finland and measured serum PLP levels (Table 2). The studies on blood PLP levels met more quality criteria (8-9 stars) than the studies on vitamin B6 intake (6-7 stars). Studies with a lower quality score generally did not adjust for physical activity. Most studies provided risk estimates that were adjusted for age (all 13 studies), body mass index (12 studies), smoking (10 studies), physical activity (9 studies), alcohol consumption (9 studies), and red meat (10 studies); fewer were adjusted for folate (7 studies) and calcium (7 studies).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Characteristics of Prospective Studies on Vitamin B6 Intake and Colorectal Cancer
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Characteristics of Prospective Studies on Blood PLP Levels and Colorectal Cancer
High vs Low Vitamin B6 or PLP Levels

The multivariable-adjusted RRs for each study and all studies combined for the highest vs lowest categories of vitamin B6 intake or blood PLP level are shown in Figure 2. Results from studies on vitamin B6 intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk were inconsistent, with both inverse and positive associations reported. All studies on the association of blood PLP levels with colorectal cancer risk showed an inverse association, which was statistically significant in 3 studies. The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest vs lowest categories of vitamin B6 intake and blood PLP level were, respectively, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.75-1.07) and 0.52 (95% CI, 0.38-0.71). There was statistically significant heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B6 intake (P = .01; I2 = 56%; 95% CI, 0%-76%) but not among studies of blood PLP levels (P = .95; I2 = 0%; 95% CI, 0%-68%). The Egger test showed no evidence of publication bias for vitamin B6 intake (P = .10) or blood PLP levels (P = .94).

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Figure 2. Adjusted Relative Risks of Colorectal Cancer for the Highest vs Lowest Categories of Vitamin B6 Intake or Blood PLP Level
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CI indicates confidence interval; PLP, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. The size of each square is proportional to the study's weight (inverse of variance).
aThe range is the difference in the midpoint between the highest and lowest categories of exposure.
bExclusion of the study by de Vogel et al,20 which appeared to explain the study heterogeneity, yielded a pooled relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92) with no heterogeneity among studies (P = .23; I2 = 24%; 95% CI, 0%-64%).

Sensitivity Analyses

To explore the heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer, we performed sensitivity and stratified analyses. A sensitivity analysis omitting 1 study at a time and calculating the pooled RRs for the remainder of the studies showed that the study by de Vogel et al20 substantially influenced the pooled RR. After excluding this single study, there was no study heterogeneity (P = .23; I2 = 24%; 95% CI, 0%-64%), and the RR for the highest vs lowest category of vitamin B6 intake was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92). Stronger associations between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer were found in studies that met more quality criteria (7 stars; RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.96) than in studies that met fewer quality criteria (6 stars; RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.74-1.34).

Stratifying by geographic region, the RRs were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-1.06) for studies conducted in the United States, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.63-1.73) for studies in Europe, and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59-1.05) for studies in Asia. Among 6 studies that provided results for colon cancer, the RR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.81-1.17). We could not conduct analyses stratified by colon subsites because only 2 studies reported results for proximal and distal colon sites.12,20 The risk estimates for rectal cancer (4 studies) were too heterogenous to pool (P < .001; I2 = 82%; 95% CI, 49%-91%). When we stratified the analysis by source of vitamin B6 intake, the RRs were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.72-1.10) for dietary vitamin B6 and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for total vitamin B6. Associations between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer were stronger in studies with a wider range of exposure (>1.5-mg difference in median intake comparing extreme categories; RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-1.07) compared with studies with a more narrow range of exposure (≤1.5-mg difference; RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.23).

Only 4 reports (5 studies) provided both age-adjusted and multivariable RRs for the association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk.11,12,18,21 For these studies, the age-adjusted and multivariable RRs for the highest vs lowest categories of vitamin B6 intake were, respectively, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.90) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.68-1.07).

Dose-Response Meta-analysis

We next assessed the dose-response relationship between blood PLP levels and colorectal cancer risk. We found no evidence of statistically significant departure from linearity (P = .44). A 100-pmol/mL increment (about 2 SDs) in blood PLP level conferred an RR of 0.51 (95% CI, 0.38-0.69) (Figure 3). Excluding the study conducted in Finland that measured serum PLP levels did not change the results appreciably (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37-0.71).

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Figure 3. Dose-Response Relationship Between Blood PLP Level and Relative Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Graphic Jump Location

Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs; dashed lines) are reported. Blood pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) levels were modeled with a linear trend in a random-effects meta-regression model. The median value of the lowest reference range (12.7 pmol/mL) was used to estimate all relative risks. The vertical axis is on a log scale.

Quiz Ref IDThe findings from this meta-analysis of prospective studies indicate that increased blood PLP levels are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Overall, the risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 49% for every 100-pmol/mL increase in blood PLP level, corresponding to approximately 2 SDs in the majority of the studied population.

The observed heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk seemed to be explained by 1 large cohort study in the Netherlands.20 After exclusion of this single study, there was a statistically significant inverse association between vitamin B6 intake and risk of colorectal cancer (20% decreased risk when comparing high vs low intake) without evidence of study heterogeneity. The disparate results for the Netherlands cohort may be due to the very narrow range of exposure in that study (0.6- to 0.7-mg difference in median vitamin B6 intake between the highest and lowest quintiles) compared with the other studies (Figure 2). In fact, a statistically significant 21% reduction in colorectal cancer risk comparing high vs low vitamin B6 intake was observed among studies with a wider range of exposure (>1.5-mg difference).

Although vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods, many older people do not obtain an adequate intake of this nutrient. In the United States, the prevalence of inadequate vitamin B6 intake for adults older than 50 years is about 20% for men and 40% for women.30

A strength of this study is that our quantitative assessment was based on prospective studies. This minimizes the possibility that our results were due to recall or selection bias, which could be of concern in retrospective case-control studies. Our study also has several limitations. First, a meta-analysis is not able to solve problems with confounding factors that could be inherent in the included studies. Inadequate control for confounders may bias the results in either direction, toward exaggeration or underestimation of risk estimates. Although most studies adjusted for other known risk factors for colorectal cancer, residual or unknown confounding cannot be excluded as a potential explanation for the observed findings. Quiz Ref IDVitamin B6 intake tends to be associated with healthy behaviors that may be protective against colorectal cancer, such as higher physical activity, less smoking, lower alcohol consumption, and higher folate intake.12,18,19 However, all but 1 of the studies on blood PLP levels adjusted for major potential confounders, including physical activity, smoking, and intakes of alcohol and folate. A second limitation is that our results are likely to be affected by some degree of misclassification of exposure. Only 2 reports on vitamin B6 intake updated the information about diet during follow-up.18,21 Misclassification of vitamin B6 intake may have been present in the 6 studies that assessed diet at baseline only,8,11,12,19,20,22 which could lead to an underestimation of the RR estimates. The associations between blood PLP level and colorectal cancer were stronger than those between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer. This may be because of measurement error in the assessment of vitamin B6 intake, leading to an attenuation of the observed association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk. Dietary and total vitamin B6 intake has been shown to be reasonably strongly correlated with serum (r = 0.46)27 and plasma (r = 0.42)26 PLP levels, respectively. Third, heterogeneity may be introduced because of methodological differences among studies, including different ranges of exposure. In addition, some studies measured vitamin B6 intake from diet only, whereas other studies combined dietary and supplemental vitamin B6 intake. Nevertheless, results were similar for dietary and total vitamin B6 intake. Finally, in a meta-analysis of published studies, publication bias could be of concern because small studies with null results tend not to be published. In this meta-analysis, we found no evidence of publication bias.

The association between vitamin B6 intake and risk of colorectal cancer has been assessed in several case-control studies, with most studies showing a statistically significant inverse association.31 In a meta-analysis of 6 case-control studies, the odds ratio of colorectal cancer for the highest vs lowest categories of vitamin B6 intake was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.60-0.75), with borderline evidence of heterogeneity among studies (P = .09).31

Recent results from a randomized clinical trial of B vitamin supplementation (folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12) showed no association between very high doses of vitamin B6 supplementation (40 mg/d) and colorectal cancer during a median 39 months of intake or exposure and an additional 38 months of posttrial observational follow-up.32 However, the number of colorectal cancer cases was limited. For colorectal cancer incidence, 26 cases were diagnosed in the vitamin B6 group and 22 cases in the placebo group. The corresponding number of deaths due to colorectal cancer was 5 in the vitamin B6 group and 7 in the placebo group.

Quiz Ref IDStudies on plasma PLP levels in relation to risk of colorectal adenomas have observed an inverse association.26,33 In the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study, a randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and incidence of new colorectal adenomas in individuals with a history of adenomas, those in the highest quartile of baseline plasma PLP level had a 22% lower risk of new adenoma compared with those in the lowest quartile (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61-1.00).33 Likewise, in the Nurses' Health Study, women in the highest quartile of plasma PLP level had a non–statistically significant lower risk of distal colorectal adenoma than did women in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.41-1.15).26

In summary, findings from this meta-analysis of prospective studies indicate that blood PLP levels are inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer. There was no significant association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer risk. The findings from these observational studies need to be confirmed in large randomized clinical trials of vitamin B6 supplementation.

Corresponding Author: Susanna C. Larsson, PhD, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, PO Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden (susanna.larsson@ki.se).

Author Contributions: Dr Larsson had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Larsson, Orsini, Wolk.

Acquisition of data: Larsson, Orsini.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Larsson, Orsini, Wolk.

Drafting of the manuscript: Larsson, Orsini.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Larsson, Orsini, Wolk.

Statistical analysis: Larsson, Orsini.

Obtained funding: Wolk.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Wolk.

Study supervision: Wolk.

Financial Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This work was supported by research grants from the Swedish Cancer Foundation and the Swedish Research Council for Infrastructure.

Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

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Figures

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 1. Selection of Studies for Inclusion in Meta-analysis
Graphic Jump Location
Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 2. Adjusted Relative Risks of Colorectal Cancer for the Highest vs Lowest Categories of Vitamin B6 Intake or Blood PLP Level
Graphic Jump Location

CI indicates confidence interval; PLP, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. The size of each square is proportional to the study's weight (inverse of variance).
aThe range is the difference in the midpoint between the highest and lowest categories of exposure.
bExclusion of the study by de Vogel et al,20 which appeared to explain the study heterogeneity, yielded a pooled relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92) with no heterogeneity among studies (P = .23; I2 = 24%; 95% CI, 0%-64%).

Place holder to copy figure label and caption
Figure 3. Dose-Response Relationship Between Blood PLP Level and Relative Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Graphic Jump Location

Adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs; dashed lines) are reported. Blood pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) levels were modeled with a linear trend in a random-effects meta-regression model. The median value of the lowest reference range (12.7 pmol/mL) was used to estimate all relative risks. The vertical axis is on a log scale.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Characteristics of Prospective Studies on Vitamin B6 Intake and Colorectal Cancer
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Characteristics of Prospective Studies on Blood PLP Levels and Colorectal Cancer

References

Mackey AD, Davis SR, Gregory JF III. Vitamin B6In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:452-461
Martinez M, Cuskelly GJ, Williamson J, Toth JP, Gregory JF III. Vitamin B-6 deficiency in rats reduces hepatic serine hydroxymethyltransferase and cystathionine beta-synthase activities and rates of in vivo protein turnover, homocysteine remethylation and transsulfuration.  J Nutr. 2000;130(5):1115-1123
PubMed
Selhub J. Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 and one carbon metabolism.  J Nutr Health Aging. 2002;6(1):39-42
PubMed
Komatsu SI, Watanabe H, Oka T, Tsuge H, Nii H, Kato N. Vitamin B-6-supplemented diets compared with a low vitamin B-6 diet suppress azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis in mice by reducing cell proliferation.  J Nutr. 2001;131(8):2204-2207
PubMed
Matsubara K, Komatsu S, Oka T, Kato N. Vitamin B6-mediated suppression of colon tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis.  J Nutr Biochem. 2003;14(5):246-250
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shen J, Lai CQ, Mattei J, Ordovas JM, Tucker KL. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.  Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(2):337-342
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Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC,  et al; Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group.  Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting.  JAMA. 2000;283(15):2008-2012
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Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(5):1198-1203
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Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D,  et al.  The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Ottawa, Canada: Dept of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.htm. Accessed February 10, 2010
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials.  Control Clin Trials. 1986;7(3):177-188
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Harnack L, Jacobs DR Jr, Nicodemus K, Lazovich D, Anderson K, Folsom AR. Relationship of folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and methionine intake to incidence of colorectal cancers.  Nutr Cancer. 2002;43(2):152-158
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Zhang SM, Moore SC, Lin J,  et al.  Folate, vitamin B6, multivitamin supplements, and colorectal cancer risk in women.  Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(2):108-115
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Greenland S, Longnecker MP. Methods for trend estimation from summarized dose-response data, with applications to meta-analysis.  Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(11):1301-1309
PubMed
Orsini N, Bellocco R, Greenland S. Generalized least squares for trend estimation of summarized dose-response data.  Stata Journal. 2006;6(1):40-57
Harrell FE Jr, Lee KL, Pollock BG. Regression models in clinical studies: determining relationships between predictors and response.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988;80(15):1198-1202
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Higgins JP, Thompson SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis.  Stat Med. 2002;21(11):1539-1558
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.  BMJ. 1997;315(7109):629-634
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Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Wolk A. Vitamin B6 intake, alcohol consumption, and colorectal cancer: a longitudinal population-based cohort of women.  Gastroenterology. 2005;128(7):1830-1837
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Ishihara J, Otani T, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S.Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Group.  Low intake of vitamin B-6 is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese men.  J Nutr. 2007;137(7):1808-1814
PubMed
de Vogel S, Dindore V, van Engeland M, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Weijenberg MP. Dietary folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 and risk of sporadic colorectal cancer.  J Nutr. 2008;138(12):2372-2378
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Schernhammer ES, Giovannuccci E, Fuchs CS, Ogino S. A prospective study of dietary folate and vitamin B and colon cancer according to microsatellite instability and KRAS mutational status.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(10):2895-2898
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Shrubsole MJ, Yang G, Gao YT,  et al.  Dietary B vitamin and methionine intakes and plasma folate are not associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese women.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(3):1003-1006
PubMed   |  Link to Article
de Vogel S, Bongaerts BW, Wouters KA,  et al.  Associations of dietary methyl donor intake with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and related molecular phenotypes in sporadic colorectal cancer.  Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(9):1765-1773
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Schernhammer ES, Giovannucci E, Kawasaki T, Rosner B, Fuchs C, Ogino S. Dietary folate, alcohol, and B vitamins in relation to LINE-1 hypomethylation in colon cancer [published online ahead of print October 14, 2009].  GutLink to Article
PubMed
Schernhammer ES, Ogino S, Fuchs CS. Folate and vitamin B6 intake and risk of colon cancer in relation to p53 expression.  Gastroenterology. 2008;135(3):770-780
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wei EK, Giovannucci E, Selhub J, Fuchs CS, Hankinson SE, Ma J. Plasma vitamin B6 and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(9):684-692
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Weinstein SJ, Albanes D, Selhub J,  et al.  One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and risk of colon and rectal cancers.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(11):3233-3240
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Lee JE, Li H, Giovannucci E,  et al.  Prospective study of plasma vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer in men.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(4):1197-1202
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Le Marchand L, White KK, Nomura AM,  et al.  Plasma levels of B vitamins and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(8):2195-2201
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Moshfegh A, Goldman J, Cleveland L. What We Eat in America: NHANES 2001-2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes From Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service, US Dept of Agriculture; 2005
Theodoratou E, Farrington SM, Tenesa A,  et al.  Dietary vitamin B6 intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(1):171-182
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ebbing M, Bonaa KH, Nygard O,  et al.  Cancer incidence and mortality after treatment with folic acid and vitamin B12 JAMA. 2009;302(19):2119-2126
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Figueiredo JC, Levine AJ, Grau MV,  et al.  Vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and risk of new colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial of aspirin use and folic acid supplementation.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(8):2136-2145
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