Author Contributions: Dr Wunsch had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Wunsch, Angus, Linde-Zwirble.
Acquisition of data: Wunsch, Linde-Zwirble.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Wunsch, Guerra, Barnato, Angus, Li, Linde-Zwirble.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wunsch, Guerra, Linde-Zwirble.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wunsch, Guerra, Barnato, Angus, Li, Linde-Zwirble.
Statistical analysis: Wunsch, Guerra.
Obtained funding: Wunsch, Barnato, Li.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Angus, Linde-Zwirble.
Study supervision: Barnato, Angus, Li, Linde-Zwirble.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported by a Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research fellowship grant.
Role of the Sponsors: The Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the analysis and interpretation of data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: Dr Angus, a JAMA Contributing Editor, was not involved in the editorial review or decision to publish this article.