Author Contributions: Dr Jones had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jones, Shapiro, Trzeciak, Kline.
Acquisition of data: Jones, Shapiro, Trzeciak, Arnold, Claremont, Kline.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jones, Shapiro, Trzeciak, Kline.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jones, Kline.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jones, Shapiro, Trzeciak, Arnold, Claremont, Kline.
Statistical analysis: Jones, Kline.
Obtained funding: Jones, Kline.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jones, Shapiro, Arnold, Claremont, Kline.
Study supervision: Jones, Kline.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Jones reports receiving research support from Critical Biologics Corp and Hutchinson Technology and having served on an advisory board for Brahms and Siemens in 2009. Dr Trzeciak reports that he receives research support from Ikaria, Novo Nordisk, serves as a consultant to Spectral Diagnostics, and has received 3 honoraria from Edwards Lifesciences prior to 2005, but has not received any personal remuneration from any commercial interest since 2005. Dr Shapiro reports that he has received research support from Biosite, Hutchinson Technology, and Eli Lilly. Dr Kline reported that he is the inventor on US patent 7,083,574, a breath-based device that monitors patient response to resuscitation. Dr Arnold and Ms Claremont reported no financial conflicts.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by grant GM76652 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Dr Jones). Dr Trzeciak was supported by grant GM83211 from the NIH. Dr Shapiro was supported by grants HL091757 and GM076659 from the NIH.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsor of this study reviewed and approved the study design but had no role in the conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the article.
Additional Contributions: We thank J. Lee Garvey, MD, who functioned as the study monitor; Jackeline Hernandez, MD, and Nikita Young, BS (all from Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina), and David Lundy, MD (Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey), for their invaluable assistance with monitoring the study and enrolling patients; Charlie Johnson, BS (paid consultant from Studymaker LLC, Newton, Massachusetts) for assistance with database management. We also thank R. Phillip Dellinger, MD (Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey), for his thoughtful critique of this report and who received no remuneration. We are indebted to the emergency department and ICU nurses and physicians at Carolinas Medical Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Cooper University Hospital who willingly assisted in the care of the study patients. Finally, we humbly express our deepest gratitude to the patients who so willingly participated in this study.