Study concept and design: Rohde, Dimcheff, Saint, Rogers.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Rohde, Dimcheff, Blumberg, Saint, Langa, Kuhn, Hickner, Rogers.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rohde, Blumberg, Kuhn, Rogers.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rohde, Dimcheff, Blumberg, Saint, Langa, Hickner, Rogers.
Statistical analysis: Langa, Rogers.
Obtained funding: Rogers.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Blumberg, Kuhn.
Study supervision: Blumberg, Saint, Rogers.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Saint reports giving expert testimony on legal cases focusing on medical malpractice; receiving payment from the National Institutes of Health, Veterans Affairs, and the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation to his institution; receiving payment for lectures from many academic meetings, group-purchasing organizations, state hospital associations, and nonprofit organizations; and receiving royalties for edited or authored books from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, McGraw-Hill, and Wiley-Blackwell; and serving on the board for Doximity and Jvion. No other discosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by grant 5R21HL093129-02 from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.