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Intraoperative Diagnosis and Management of Patent Foramen Ovale

Valbona Mirakaj, MD; Cyril A. Thix, MD; Peter Rosenberger, MD
JAMA. 2009;302(21):2317-2318. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1743.
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To the Editor: Dr Krasuski and colleagues1 investigated the association of intraoperative patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure with perioperative outcomes and long-term survival. The study found that the risk of perioperative stroke was not associated with closure of a PFO at the time of incidental intraoperative discovery. Technical advancement and the widespread use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) have increased the incidence of diagnosing a PFO at the time of surgery and have raised questions about best possible management.2,3


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December 2, 2009
Ravinay Bhindi, MBBS, PhD, FRACP; Oliver J. Ormerod, DM, FRCP
JAMA. 2009;302(21):2317-2318. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1744.
December 2, 2009
Stephen A. Hart, BS; Richard A. Krasuski, MD; Eugene Blackstone, MD
JAMA. 2009;302(21):2317-2318. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1745.
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