Author Contributions: Dr Thomas had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Acquisition of data: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Drafting of the manuscript: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Obtained funding: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Thomas.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Study supervision: Allam, Thompson, Wann, Miyamoto, Thomas.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Thompson reported receiving lecture honoraria from Pfizer, Merck, and AstraZeneca. Dr Thomas reported receiving lecture honoraria from Abbott and Merck, consulting fees from General Electric, and research support from ISIS and Hoffman-La Roche. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This investigator-initiated study was supported by the National Bank of Egypt, Cairo; Siemens Healthcare, Florsheim, Germany; and St Luke's Hospital Foundation, Kansas City, Missouri.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Previous Presentation: Presented in part at the Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography; July 19, 2009; Orlando, Florida; and to be presented at the Annual Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association, November 17, 2009; Orlando, Florida.
Additional Contributions: The Egyptology and preservationist group was an integral part of the research team, guiding selection and determination of the demographics and historical relevance of the mummies, and it received financial support. They were led by Abd el-Halim Nur el-Din, PhD (Cairo University, Giza, Egypt), with Gomaa Abd el-Maksoud, PhD (Cairo University), and Ibrahem Badr, PhD (Institute of Restoration, Alexandria, Egypt). Nasry Iskander, PhD (Center of Research, Supreme Council of Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt), also added significant contributions and received financial support. Hany Abd el-Amer, PhD (National Research Center, Dokki, Giza), was instrumental in the CT scanning and received financial support. The authors are grateful to Zahi Hawass, PhD (Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egyptian Ministry of Culture), for allowing us to scan these mummies; to Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman, PhD (National Research Centre, Cairo), for performing the anthropological measurements to estimate the age and sex of the mummies; and to Jennifer J. Thomas, PhD (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston), for her data analysis and critical review of the letter; these individuals did not receive financial compensation for their contributions.