Author Contributions: Dr Hu had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hu, Lipsitz, Barry, D’Amico, Keating.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hu, Gu, Lipsitz, D’Amico, Weinberg, Keating.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hu, Gu, Lipsitz, D’Amico, Weinberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hu, Gu, Lipsitz, Barry, D’Amico, Keating.
Statistical analysis: Gu, Lipsitz, Keating.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Weinberg.
Study supervision: Hu, Barry, D’Amico, Keating.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Barry reports that he receives support as president of the nonprofit Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making. No other disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was funded by a Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Physician Training Award to Dr Hu.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor was not involved with the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Program, National Cancer Institute; the Office of Research, Development, and Information, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services Inc; and the SEER program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database.