Author Contributions: Dr Lu-Yao had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, DiPaola, Barry, Zietman, Yao.
Acquisition of data: Lu-Yao, Walker-Corkery.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Moore, Shih, Lin, Barry, Zietman, O’Leary, Yao.
Drafting of the manuscript: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Lin, Yao.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Lu-Yao, Albertsen, Moore, Shih, DiPaola, Barry, Zietman, O’Leary, Walker-Corkery, Yao.
Statistical analysis: Lu-Yao, Moore, Shih, Lin.
Obtained funding: Lu-Yao.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Albertsen, DiPaola, Barry, Walker-Corkery, Yao.
Study supervision: Lu-Yao, Shih, DiPaola, O’Leary, Yao.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Barry reported that he became the president of the not-for-profit Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making on August 1, 2009. Dr Anthony Zietman reported that he will receive a stipend for becoming the cochair of the National Cancer Institute Genitourinary Steering Committee. In addition, during the past 5 years, the following authors reported that they have received financial support and maintained affiliations: Dr G. Lu-Yao has received clinical research funding from the Ohl Foundation, New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and employment with HealthStat; Dr Albertson has received clinical research funding from Sanofi-Aventis and consultation fees from Blue Cross/Blue Shield; Dr Shih has received clinical research funding from Myriad; Dr Moore has contributed to a consulting project with Innocentive Inc and has received funding from the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Dr Barry has received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making (a not-for-profit); Ms Walker-Corkery has received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Dr S.-L. Yao has been employed by Sanofi-Aventis and Schering-Plough in the area of clinical cancer research. None of these entities contributed funding, or played any role whatsoever in the design, interpretation, or drafting of our study or manuscript.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by the following grants and awards: award DAMD17-01-1-0755 from the US Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, Fort Detrick, MD, Department of Defense award W81XWG-05-1-0235, Ohl Foundation, and grants R01 CA116399 and CINJ core grant CA-72720-10 from the National Cancer Institute.
Role of Sponsor: The Department of Defense, Ohl Foundation, and National Cancer Institute provided funding for this study. The Department of Defense and Ohl Foundation did not play any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The National Cancer Institute did not play any role in the design and conduct of the study; analysis and interpretation of the data; and preparation of the manuscript, but did collect and manage the data as well as reviewed and approved the manuscript.
Disclaimer: This study used the linked SEER-Medicare database. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the sole responsibility of the authors. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government or the employers, and no official endorsement should be inferred.
Additional Contributions: We acknowledge the efforts of the Applied Research Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Science, National Cancer Institute, the Office of Information Services, and the Office of Strategic Planning, Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Information Management Services Inc, and the SEER Program tumor registries in the creation of the SEER-Medicare database. We thank Thanusha Puvananayagam, MPH, an assistant staff with salary support from the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, for outstanding administrative and technical assistance.