Author Contributions: Drs Luo and Li had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Wald, Quinn, Scales, Mamdani, Ray.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Wald, Luo, Li.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wald, Ray.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wald, Quinn, Luo, Li, Scales, Mamdani.
Statistical analysis: Wald, Luo, Li, Scales, Ray.
Obtained funding: Wald.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wald.
Study supervision: Mamdani, Ray.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, which is funded by an annual grant from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; and a New Staff Dean's Grant from the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. Dr Scales reports support from a Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Award. Dr Wald reports receipt of an RCT Mentoring Program Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and an unrestricted grant from Amgen. Dr Quinn reports support from a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Institute of Health Services and Policy Research Fellowship. Dr Ray reports support from a Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Award.
Role of the Sponsor: The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine had no involvement in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Other members of the University of Toronto Acute Kidney Injury Research Group: Stephen Lapinsky, MD (Mt Sinai Hospital); Karen Burns, MD, MSc, and Jan Friedrich, MD, MSc, DPhil (St Michael's Hospital); Neill Adhikari, MDCM, MSc, Michelle Hladunewich, MD, MSc, and Sheldon Tobe, MD (Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre); and Robert Richardson, MD (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Disclaimer: The opinions, results, and conclusions reported in this article are those of the authors and are independent from the funding sources. No endorsement by the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences or the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care is intended or should be inferred.
Previous Presentations: Presented in part at the 2008 American Society of Nephrology Renal Week (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
Additional Contributions: We are grateful for the thoughtful input provided by Ahmed Bayoumi, MD, Tara Gomes, MHSc, Michael Paterson, MSc, and Jan Hux, MD. They received no compensation for their contributions.