Author Contributions: Dr Volkow had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Volkow, Wang, Wigal, Newcorn, Swanson.
Acquisition of data: Wang, Kollins, Wigal, Newcorn, Telang, Fowler, Pradhan.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Volkow, Wang, Kollins, Wigal, Newcorn, Zhu, Logan, Ma, Wong, Swanson.
Drafting of the manuscript: Volkow, Wang, Fowler.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Volkow, Wang, Kollins, Wigal, Newcorn, Telang, Zhu, Logan, Ma, Pradhan, Wong, Swanson.
Statistical analysis: Zhu, Wong, Swanson.
Obtained funding: Volkow, Wang, Newcorn.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wang, Kollins, Wigal, Telang, Fowler, Ma, Swanson.
Study supervision: Wang, Kollins, Wigal, Fowler.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Kollins reported receiving research support, consulting fees, or both from the following sources: Addrenex Pharmaceuticals, Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Shire Pharmaceuticals, NIDA, NIMH, NINDS, NIEHS, EPA. Dr Newcorn reported being a recipient of research support from Eli Lilly and Ortho-McNeil Janssen, serves as a consultant, advisor, or both for Astra Zeneca, BioBehavioral Diagnostics, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil Janssen, and Shire and as a speaker for Ortho-McNeil Janssen. Dr Swanson reported receiving support from Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, Gliatech, Cephalon, Watson, CIBA, Janssen, and McNeil; has been on advisory boards of Alza, Richwood, Shire, Celgene, Novartis, Celltech, UCB, Gliatech, Cephalon, McNeil, and Eli Lilly; has been on the speakers bureaus of Alza, Shire, Novartis, Cellthech, UCB, Cephalon, CIBA, Janssen, and McNeil; and has consulted to Alza, Richwood, Shire, Clegene, Novarits, Celltech, UCB, Gliatech, Cephalon, Watson, CIBA, Jansen, McNeil and Eli Lilly. Dr Wigal reported receiving support from Eli Lilly, McNeil, Novartis, and Shire. No other financial disclosures were reported.
Funding/Support: This research was carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and was supported in part by grant MH66961-02 from the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Mental Health and infrastructure support from the Department of Energy.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies did not participate in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank the following BNL employees: Donald Warner for PET operations; David Schlyer and Michael Schueller for cyclotron operations; Pauline Carter, Millard Jayne, and Barbara Hubbard for nursing care; Payton King for plasma analysis; and Lisa Muench, Youwen Xu, and Colleen Shea for radiotracer preparation; and Karen Appelskog-Torres for protocol coordination. We also thank Duke employees Joseph English and Allan Chrisman for participant recruitment and evaluation; and NIH employee Linda Thomas for editorial assistance. We also thank the individuals who volunteered for these studies. None of the authors or the individuals acknowledged was compensated for their contributions other than their salaries.
This article was corrected online for error in data on 9/8/2009, prior to publication of the correction in print.