Study concept and design: Righini, van Es, den Exter, Roy, Le Gall, Douma, Meyer, Bounameaux, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Acquisition of data: Righini, den Exter, Roy, Verschuren, Ghuysen, Rutschmann, Sanchez, Jaffrelot, Trinh-Duc, Moustafa, Principe, van Houten, Ten Wolde, Hazelaar, Erkens, van Kralingen, Grootenboers, Durian, Cheung, Meyer, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Righini, den Exter, Roy, Verschuren, Le Gall, Meyer, Huisman, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Drafting of the manuscript: Righini, den Exter, Ghuysen, Trinh-Duc, Moustafa, Hazelaar, Meyer, Huisman, Kamphuisen, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Righini, van Es, den Exter, Roy, Verschuren, Rutschmann, Sanchez, Jaffrelot, Le Gall, Principe, van Houten, Ten Wolde, Douma, Erkens, van Kralingen, Grootenboers, Durian, Cheung, Bounameaux, Huisman, Kamphuisen.
Statistical analysis: Righini, Le Gal.
Obtained funding: Righini, Douma, Bounameaux, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Administrative, technical, and material support: van Es, Ghuysen, Rutschmann, Sanchez, Jaffrelot, Moustafa, Principe, van Houten, Ten Wolde, Douma, Hazelaar, Grootenboers, Durian, Bounameaux, Le Gal.
Study supervision: Righini, Roy, Rutschmann, Le Gall, Ten Wolde, Douma, van Kralingen, Huisman, Kamphuisen, Le Gal.
Performed research: Righini, Huisman, Kamphuisen, Verschuren, Meyer, Bounameaux, Le Gal.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Dr Rutschmann reports consulting for bioMérieux and having patents for the Swiss emergency triage scale. Dr Sanchez reports receiving personal fees and nonfinancial support from Actelion and GlaxoSmithKline, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants from Daiichi Sankyo, and nonfinancial support from Chiesi. Dr Trinh-Duc reports receiving support from Bayer and Daiichi Sankyo. Dr Moustafa reports receiving personal fees from Bayer and nonfinancial support from sanofi-aventis. Dr Meyer reports receiving grants and nonfinancial support from Bayer and Boeringer Ingelheim and nonfinancial support from Leo Pharma. Dr Bounameaux reports serving as a board member for sanofi-aventis and the Garfield-VTE registry; consulting for Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, and the Thrombosis Research Center in London; and receiving payment for lectures from Bayer and payment for developing educational presentations from Remedica. Dr Le Gal reports receiving personal fees from Bayer, bioMérieux, Pfizer, and sanofi-aventis. No other disclosures were reported.
Collaborators: Belgium (192 patients, 2 centers): Franck Verschuren, MD, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels; Alexandre Ghuysen, MD, Hôpital Universitaire de Liège. France (827 patients, 7 centers): Meissa Kare, MD, Pierre-Arnaud Fort, MD, Béatrice Dadone, MD, Hôpital St-Esprit, Agen; Caroline Soulie, MD, Aurore Armand-Perroux, MD, Benoit Derrien, MD, Anne-Sophie Bordot, MD, Vanessa Richard, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Angers; Catherine Le Gall, MD, Pascal Peudepiece, MD, Centre Hospitalier d’Argenteuil, Argenteuil; Dominique Mottier, MD, Francis Couturaud, MD, Aurélien Delluc, MD, James Benis, MD, Christophe Leroyer, MD, Karine Lacut, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brest, Brest; Thierry Mathevon, MD, Mathieu Lacroix, MD, Christophe Perrier, MD, Daniel Pic, MD, Christine Carrias, MD, Sandra Taze, MD, Jeannot Schmidt, MD, Hôpital Gabriel Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand; Julien Boileau, MD, Marjorie Coutant, MD, Julien Puech, MD, Olivier Trinh, MD, Centre Hospitalier du Pays de Morlaix, Morlaix; Alexis Ferre, MD, Marine Gosset, MD, Sébastien Beaune, MD, Antoine Roux, MD, Gisèle Mourin, MD, Benoit Douvry, MD, Amandine Vial Dupuy, MD, Benjamin Planquette, MD, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris. The Netherlands (1703 patients, 11 centers): Josien van Es, MD Renée A. Douma, MD, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Sanne van Wissen, MD, Onze Lieve Vrouwen Gasthuis, Amsterdam; Paul L. den Exter, MD, Menno V. Huisman, MD, Inge C.M. Mos, MD, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Petra M.G Erkens, MD, Hugo ten Cate, MD, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht; Peter W. Kamphuisen, MD, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen; Germa Hazelaar, MD, Marcel M. C. Hovens, MD, Erik Ullmann, MD, Karin A. H. Kaasjager, MD Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Klaas W. van Kralingen, MD, Van Weel Bethesda Hospital, Dirksland; Marco J. J. H. Grootenboers, MD, Wouter J. H. Blox, MD, Amphia Hospital, Breda; Marc F. Durian, MD, Marieke Kruip, MD Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Whitney Cheung, MD, Marije ten Wolde, MD, Selma Atalay, MD, Flevo Hospital, Almere; Anja A. van Houten, MD, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam. Switzerland (602 patients, 1 center): Marc Righini, MD, Olivier Rutschmann, MD, Henri Bounameaux, MD, Arnaud Perrier, MD, Helia Robert-Ebadi, MD, Françoise Boehlen, MD, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva.
Funding/Support: The study was supported by grant 32003B-130863 from the Swiss National Research Foundation, the 2007 presidential fund from the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, grant 2010-5 from the Dutch Thrombosis Foundation, and grant PHRC 2011 08-01 from the Projets Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, French Ministry of Health. In France, the study was sponsored by Direction de la Recherche Clinique et de l’Innovation, Brest University Hospital. Participating centers are members of the Groupe d’Investigation et de Recherche Clinique (GIRC) Thrombose. The study was also supported by the Center of Clinical Research, Geneva University Hospital.
Role of the Sponsor: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We express all our gratitude to the members of the adjudication committee for their important contribution: François Becker, MD (Geneva University Hospital), Marc Carrier, MD, MsC (The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute), Philippe Girard, MD (Institut Mutualiste Montsouris). We thank all the residents and physicians from the emergency departments and vascular medicine units of all participating centers. We also thank all study nurses, secretaries, and clinical research technicians for their invaluable help: Marion Raynaud-Cornette (Centre Hospitalisier Agen), Béatrice Gable and Aurore Hamard (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire [CHU] d’Angers), Isabelle Pichon and Pauline Stéphan (CHU de Brest); Marie-Pierre Roger, Katia Nedjma, and Anlia Hassani (Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris), Martial Touwaide (Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Bruxelles), Louise Riberdy and Nadège Antoine Koffi Malan (Geneva University Hospital). We extend our thanks to the staff of the Clinical Research Center, Geneva University Hospital, and, in particular, to Khaled Mostaguir (Geneva University Hospital), who developed the electronic eCRF for the study; to Lucie Auzanneau, Céline Dolou, Nabahats Ibrir, and Florence Morvan (Direction de la Recerche Clinique et de l’Innovation, CHRU de Brest) for their administrative support. And last but not least, we would like to express our gratitude to the patients who made the study possible by accepting to participate to the trial. No one received compensation for their contribution.
Correction: This article was corrected online March 24, 2014, for errors in the affiliations.