Author Contributions: Dr Elliott had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Elliott and Chambers contributed equally to this work.
Study concept and design: Elliott, Chambers, Scott, Kooner.
Acquisition of data: Elliott, Chambers, Clarke, Peden, Erdmann, Braund, Engert, Peltonen, Freimer, Ruokonen, Hamsten, Froguel, Waterworth, Vollenweider, Waeber, Jarvelin, Mooser, Hall, Schunkert, Anand, Collins, Samani, Watkins, Kooner.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Elliott, Chambers, Zhang, Clarke, Peden, Bennett, Engert, Hopewell, Coin, Ashby, Tzoulaki, Brown, Mt-Isa, McCarthy, Peltonen, Farrall, Ruokonen, Lim, Jarvelin, Scott, Anand, Samani, Kooner.
Drafting of the manuscript: Elliott, Chambers, Scott, Kooner.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Elliott, Chambers, Zhang, Clarke, Hopewell, Peden, Erdmann, Braund, Engert, Bennett, Coin, Ashby, Tzoulaki, Brown, Mt-Isa, McCarthy, Peltonen, Freimer, Farrall, Ruokonen, Hamsten, Lim, Froguel, Waterworth, Vollenweider, Waeber, Jarvelin, Mooser, Hall, Schunkert, Anand, Collins, Samani, Watkins, Kooner.
Statistical analysis: Elliott, Chambers, Zhang, Peden, Bennett, Engert, Hopewell, Coin, Ashby, Tzoulaki, Brown, Mt-Isa, Farrall, Lim, Froguel, Schunkert, Kooner.
Obtained funding: Chambers, McCarthy, Freimer, Farrall, Hamsten, Froguel, Waterworth, Vollenweider, Waeber, Jarvelin, Mooser, Scott, Hall, Anand, Collins, Watkins, Kooner.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Elliott, Chambers, Clarke, Peden, Erdmann, Braund, Brown, Mt-Isa, Freimer, Ruokonen, Hamsten, Lim, Waterworth, Vollenweider, Jarvelin, Mooser.
Study supervision: Elliott, Chambers, Clarke, Coin, Farrall, Waterworth, Vollenweider, Waeber, Mooser, Samani, Watkins, Kooner.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance syndrome (DESIR) received support from INSERM, CNAMTS, Lilly, Novartis Pharma, Sanofi-Aventis, the Association Diabète Risque Vasculaire, the Fédération Française de Cardiologie, La Fondation de France, ALFEDIAM, ONIVINS, Ardix Medical, Bayer Diagnostics, Becton Dickinson, Cardionics, Merck Santé, Novo Nordisk, Pierre Fabre, Roche, Topcon, and the European Union (P.F.) (Integrated Project EURODIA LSHM-CT-2006-518153 in the Framework Programme 6 [FP06] of the European Community). The Genetic Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome (GEMS) study was sponsored in part by GlaxoSmithKline. The German MI Family Study was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Deutsche Herzstiftung, the National Genome Research Network 2 of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the Cardiogenics project of the European Union. From the INTERHEART study, Dr Anand holds the Michael G. DeGroot and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Chair in Population Health and the May Cohen Eli Lilly Endowed Chair in Women's Health Research, McMaster University. The INTERHEART study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, and the International Clinical Epidemiology Network (INCLEN); through unrestricted grants from several pharmaceutical companies (with major contributions from AstraZeneca, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, Knoll Pharmaceuticals [now Abbott], Bristol Myers Squibb, and King Pharma); and by various national bodies in different countries as follows: Chile, Universidad de la Frontera, Sociedad Chilena de Cardiologia Filial Sur; Colombia, Colciencias, Ministerio de Salud; Croatia, Croatian Ministry of Science and Technology; Guatemala, Liga Guatemalteca del Corazon; Hungary, Astra Hassle, National Health Science Council, George Gabor Foundation; Iran, Iran Ministry of Health; Italy, Boehringer-Ingelheim; Japan, Sankyo Pharmaceutical Co, Banyu Pharmaceutical Co, Astra Japan; Kuwait, Endowment Fund for Health Development in Kuwait; Pakistan, ATCO Laboratories; Philippines, Philippine Council for Health Research and Development, Pfizer Philippines Foundation, Inc, Astra Pharmaceuticals Inc and the Astra Fund for Clinical Research and Continuing Medical Education, Pharmacia and Upjohn Inc; Poland, Foundation PROCLINICA; Singapore, Singapore National Heart Association; South Africa, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Warner-Parke-Davis Pharmaceuticals, Aventis; Sweden, grant from the Swedish State under the LUA agreement, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation; Thailand, Heart Association of Thailand, Thailand Research Fund. The International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) trials and epidemiological studies were supported by the manufacturers of the study drugs and by the British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Tobacco Products Research Trust of the UK Department of Health Independent Scientific Committee on Smoking and Health, and Oxford NHS Genetic Knowledge Park. The Lausanne Cohort (CoLaus) study received support from the Giorgi-Cavaglieri Foundation (Toby Johnson, Sven Bergmann), the Université de Lausanne (Jacques S. Beckmann), and grant 3100AO-116323/1 (Sven Bergmann) from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Murielle Bochud). GlaxoSmithKline provided support to build the CoLaus study (Drs Vollenweider and Waeber). This work was supported by GlaxoSmithKline and the Faculty of Biology and Medicine, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. The London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP) received support from grant SP/04/002 from the British Heart Foundation. The 1966 North Finland Birth Cohort received support from grant 5R01HL087679-02 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute through the STAMPEED program; the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom; the European Birth Life-Course Study; contract QLG1-CT-2000-01643 from the European Commission “Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources”; the Biocenter Oulu of University of Oulu; the Academy of Finland; and grant 1RL1MH083268-01 from the National Institute of Mental Health. The Precocious Coronary Artery Disease study (PROCARDIS) was funded by the British Heart Foundation, EC Sixth Framework Programme (LSHM33 CT-2007-037273), AstraZeneca AB, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study received support for recruitment from grants from the British Heart Foundation and the UK Medical Research Council. It also received support from the Wellcome Trust Functional Genomics Initiative in Cardiovascular Genetics. Dr Samani holds a chair funded by the British Heart Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: With the exception of GlaxoSmith Kline, whose scientists were involved in the planning, data collection, and analysis for the GEMS and CoLaus studies, funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
GEMS Study Investigators: Philip Barter, PhD; Y. Antero Kesäniemi, PhD; Robert W. Mahley, PhD; Ruth McPherson, FRCP; and Scott M. Grundy, PhD. Dr Waeber was also a GEMS investigator. Detailed information on the GEMS study design, sampling frame, and recruitment procedures has been published previously.15
INTERHEART Study. The clinical centers are named in the 2004 INTERHEART report (http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673604170189/abstract).
ISIS Study. A full list of the participating centers and collaborators is given in the ISIS-3 report.19
CoLaus Study Investigators: Jacques S. Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Toby Johnson, Kijoung Song, Xin Yuan, and Drs Lim, Mooser, Vollenweider, Waeber, and Waterworth. Principal investigators: Drs Mooser and Vollenweider. Study design: Jacques S. Beckmann and Drs Mooser, Vollenweider, Waeber, and Waterworth. Assembly of the cohort: Dr Waeber. Data analysis: Dr Lim. Project management: Jacques S. Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, and Drs Mooser, Vollenweider, and Waterworth.
LOLIPOP Study Investigators: Drs Chambers, Elliott, Scott, and Kooner. Principal investigator: Dr Kooner. Data analysis: Drs Chambers and Zhang and Delilah Zabeneh, Robin Walters, Maria de Iorio, and David Balding.
1966 North Finland Birth Cohort Investigators: Drs Elliott, Freimer, Jarvelin, McCarthy, and Peltonen and Anna-Liisa Hartikainen and Anneli Pouta. Data analysis: Dr Coin and Pimphen Charoen. Biochemical analysis: Dr Ruokonen.
PROCARDIS Investigators: Drs Clarke, Farrall, Hamsten, Peden, and Watkins and Anuj Goel, Simon C. Heath, G. Mark Lathrop, Udo Seedorf, Ann-Christine Syvänen, and Giovanni Tognoni. Principal investigator for project: Dr Watkins. Principal investigators for collection center: Drs Clarke and Hamsten and Udo Seedorf and Giovanni Tognoni. Genotyping: Simon C. Heath, G. Mark Lathrop, and Ann-Christine Syvänen. Quality control: Simon C. Heath. Data analysis: Drs Farrall and Peden and Anuj Goel. Project management: Drs Peden and Watkins. A full membership list of the PROCARDIS consortium appears online at http://www.procardis.org.
Additional Contributions: Maria de Iorio, PhD, and Pimphen Charoen, MPhil, Imperial College, London helped with the statistical analyses for this article. They were not compensated for their contributions. In the INTERHEART study, Ron Do, MSc, helped with statistical analyses. Salim Yusuf initiated and, together with the steering committee members, supervised the conduct of the study. Members of the project office of the Population Health Research Institute, Sumathy Rangarajan and Laura Joldersma helped with study coordination, and Changchun Xie, PhD, provided statistical support. ISIS study investigators gratefully acknowledge the patients and their relatives who collaborated, their general practitioners, and the medical and nursing staff from more than 100 hospitals in the United Kingdom. PROCARDIS investigators are grateful to the participants and to the medical and nursing staff who assisted in the project. None of the INTERHEART contributors nor ISIS/PROCARDIS collaborators listed here were compensated for their contributions.