Author Contributions: Dr Melander had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Wang.
Acquisition of data: Melander, Hedblad, Berglund, Persson, Magnusson, Christensson, Struck, Morgenthaler, Bergmann.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Almgren, Hedblad, Engström, Smith, Magnusson, Christensson, Struck, Morgenthaler, Bergmann, Pencina, Wang.
Drafting of the manuscript: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Wang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Almgren, Hedblad, Berglund, Engström, Persson, Smith, Magnusson, Christensson, Struck, Morgenthaler, Bergmann, Pencina, Wang.
Statistical analysis: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Almgren, Hedblad, Engström, Pencina, Wang.
Obtained funding: Melander, Berglund, Struck, Morgenthaler, Bergmann.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Hedblad, Berglund, Persson, Smith, Magnusson, Christensson, Struck, Morgenthaler, Bergmann, Wang.
Study supervision: Melander, Newton-Cheh, Wang.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Bergmann reported holding stock in BRAHMS AG, which holds patent rights on the midregional proadrenomedullin and midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide assays. Drs Melander, Newton-Cheh, Struck, and Wang reported being listed as coinventors on a patent application for the use of proadrenomedullin for risk stratification in primary prevention. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: Dr Melander was supported by grants from the Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, the Medical Faculty of Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, the Albert Påhlsson Research Foundation, the Crafoord foundation, the Ernhold Lundströms Research Foundation, the Region Skane, the Hulda and Conrad Mossfelt Foundation, the King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria Foundation, the Lennart Hanssons Memorial Fund, and the Wallenberg Foundation. Dr Newton-Cheh was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant K23-HL-080025, a Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Clinical Scientist Development Award, and a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award for Medical Scientists. Dr Wang was supported by NIH grants R01-HL-086875, R01-HL-083197, and R01- DK-081572 and by a grant from the American Heart Association.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation or approval of the manuscript.
Additional Contributions: We thank BRAHMS AG and Siemens Diagnostics for their unrestricted support of assay measurements. We also acknowledge the assistance of Christine Perkins, BA, and Dejan Blagovcanin, BA, both of Siemens Diagnostics, with the performance of the biomarker assays; neither received any extra compensation for their assistance.