Author Contributions: Dr Ronco had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Antonelli, Giunta, Ronco.
Acquisition of data: Cruz, Antonelli, Fumagalli, Foltran, Brienza, Donati, Malcangi, Petrini, Volta, Bobbio Pallavicini, Rottoli, Giunta, Ronco.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Cruz, Antonelli, Foltran, Brienza, Malcangi, Giunta, Ronco.
Drafting of the manuscript: Cruz, Antonelli, Foltran, Giunta, Ronco.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cruz, Antonelli, Fumagalli, Brienza, Donati, Malcangi, Petrini, Volta, Bobbio Pallavicini, Rottoli, Giunta, Ronco.
Statistical analysis: Cruz, Antonelli, Foltran, Giunta.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Giunta, Ronco.
Study supervision: Antonelli, Fumagalli, Giunta, Ronco.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The study was conducted with autonomous funding from each of the participating centers. Polymyxin B cartridges for hemoperfusion (Toraymyxin) were provided free of charge by Toray Industries, Tokyo, Japan.
Role of the Sponsors: The participating centers and Toray Industries had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Participating Centers and Investigators:Department of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation, St Bortolo Hospital (coordinating center), Vicenza, Italy: Dinna Cruz, MD, MPH, Alessandra Brendolan, MD, Federico Nalesso, MD, Claudio Ronco, MD; Department of Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy: Antonella Meraglia, MD, Gabriella Salvatori, MD, Teresa Chilà, MD, Carmela Bonarrigo, MD, Massimo Antonelli, MD; Department of Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy: Francesca Foltran, MD, Francesco Forfori, MD, Patrizia Cosimini, MD, Francesco Giunta, MD; Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy: Vincenzo Malcangi, MD, Nicola Brienza, MD, PhD; Department of Neuroscience, Anesthesia, and Intensive Care, Polytechnical University of Marche, Ancona, Italy: Abele Donati, MD; Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care, and Emergency, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy: Flavia Petrini, MD; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy: Giada Volta, MD, Gabriela Sangiorgi, MD; Department of Intensive Care, S. Martino University Hospital, Genova, Italy: Franco M. Bobbio Pallavicini, MD; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Riuniti Hospital, Bergamo, Italy: Federica Rottoli, MD, Ivano Riva, MD, Elena Moretti, MD, Mariano Marchesi, MD; Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Policlinico Umberto I of Rome, Rome, Italy: Zaccaria Ricci, MD.
Previous Presentations: Presented in part at the Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT); February 28, 2009; San Diego, California (Dr Cruz); 62nd National Congress of the Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI); October 17, 2008; Palermo, Italy (Dr Antonelli); 14th International Symposium on Infections in the Critically Ill Patient; January 23, 2009; Berlin, Germany; and 29th International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (ISICEM); March 25, 2009; Brussels, Belgium. Drs Cruz and Antonelli received partial reimbursement for participation in the above mentioned meetings.