Author Contributions: Drs Chan and Hu had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Chan, Malik, Hu.
Acquisition of data: Chan, Malik, Hu.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jia, Kadowaki, Yajnik, Yoon
Drafting of the manuscript: Chan, Malik, Hu.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Chan, Malik, Jia, Kadowaki, Yajnik, Yoon, Hu.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Chan, Hu.
Study supervision: Chan, Hu.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Chan reported receiving research funding or speakers' honoraria from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi-Sankyo, GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly, Merck Serono, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Roche, and sanofi-aventis; serving as a member of the advisory boards, and/or speaker forums, and/or steering committees of international projects sponsored by AstraZeneca, Bayer, Lilly, and Merck Sharp & Dohme; with her group and on behalf of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, filing a patent application to use genetic markers to predict risk of diabetes and diabetic kidney disease in Chinese populations; and, in a technology transfer project, establishing a university-affiliated diabetes center (Qualigenics) to deliver a multidisciplinary chronic care program in the community (all related revenues and proceeds go to the Chinese University of Hong Kong to support ongoing research and development in diabetes). Dr Kadowaki reported receiving research funding or speakers' honoraria from Takeda, Daiichi-Sankyo, Astellas, Ono, Dainippon Sumitomo, sanofi-aventis, Novo Nordisk, Novartis, and Lilly and serving as a member of the advisory board of Daiichi-Sankyo, Ono, Merck, Lilly, sanofi-aventis, Novo Nordisk, and Novartis (all funds go to the University of Tokyo to support ongoing research and development in diabetes). Dr Yoon reported serving as a member of the steering committees, and/or advisory boards, and/or speaker forums of Merck Sharp & Dohme, GlaxoSmithKline, Lilly, Merck Serono, Novartis, and Choongwae Korea on diabetes-related subjects; serving as an investigator on clinical trials supported by AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Lilly, sanofi-aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, CJ Pharmaceutical, and CW Korea; with his team and on behalf of the Catholic University of Korea, filing a patent application to use various Web-based diabetes management programs and intracellular miRNA targets to improve beta cell function in patients with diabetes; and, in a technology project, working with his team to establish a university-affiliated institute for ubiquitous health care and a joint venture company called C & I Healthcare to use protocol-driven care delivered through Internet and mobile communications to improve diabetes care in the community. Dr Hu reported receiving research funding from Merck, Unilever, and the California Walnut Commission and receiving payment or honoraria for presentations at academic conferences supported by Novartis and Novo Nordisk. Mr Malik, Dr Jia, and Dr Yajnik reported no financial disclosures.
Additional Contributions: We thank Louisa Lam, MLib, MAIS, librarian, Li Ping Medical Library, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, for her assistance and advice on search strategy. Ms Lam received no extra compensation for her contributions. We regret that limited space allows us to cite only a fraction of the work conducted in Asian countries.