The kidneys filter blood, remove waste products, make hormones, and produce urine. The 2 kidneys drain via the ureters into the bladder where the urine is stored. In persons with end-stage renal (kidney) disease (also called chronic renal failure), renal dialysis (use of a machine to substitute for the kidney in removing waste products) or kidney transplantation are the treatment options. A successfully transplanted kidney works as a person's own healthy kidney would. This means that the individual would no longer need dialysis and may reduce or eliminate need for some medications. Not every person with renal failure is a candidate for a kidney transplant, so treatment options should be discussed with your doctor. The April 22/29, 2009, issue of JAMA includes an article about access to kidney transplantation among remote and rural-dwelling patients in the United States. This Patient Page is based on one published in the December 7, 2005, issue of JAMA.